2Mexican Constitution of 1824 Declared Mexico a federation of free and sovereign states.The document under which Texas Colonists were invited to emigrate to Mexico, and was the one they swore to defend.In 1835, President Antonio López de Santa Anna declared that Mexico was not ready for democracy and took away the 1824 Constitution. He then centralized national power under himself.
3Battle of GonzalesFirst Shots of the RevolutionA Mexican officer ordered the citizens of Gonzales to hand over a brass cannon, but they refused.The settlers buried the cannon and called for reinforcements that reached 140 men.The settlers dug up their cannon, mounted it on a wagon, and placed a flag on it that read:On October 2, 1835 the citizens of Gonzales attacked a force of 100 Mexican soldiers and forced them to leave for San Antonio.
4General Martín de Cos Headquartered in San Antonio Ordered 300 more troops to Texasto put down the rebellionTriggered the formation of avolunteer army of Texans under thecommand of George Collinsworthand Ben Milam that captured thetown of GoliadThe capture of Goliad cut off thesupply lines of General Cos’ armyThe Texan victories at Gonzalesand Goliad inspired more volunteersto join the rebel army
5The March on San Antonio The Gonzales volunteers elected Stephen F. Austin astheir general and began to organize their attack onSan AntonioStephen F. AustinJim BowieTo find a good defensive position outside San Antonio, Austin sent a search party of 90 men led by Jim Bowie and James FanninJames FanninThe scouting party was attacked by 400Mexican soldiers at the Mission ConcepciónBut were able to hold them off with theirmore accurate rifles. This clear victoryboosted the morale of the Texas rebel army.Some Texan troops wanted to attack General Cos immediately, but Austin chose to wait for reinforcements due to the large number of soldiers and artillery in San Antonio.
6Juan SeguínPlacido BenavidesMore than 100 Tejanos joined the fight in San Antonio,most notably Juan Seguín and Placido Benavides. Manyof these Tejanos were skilled horsemen and became apart of Stephen F. Austin’s plan to build a strong cavalryLos TejanosAlready opposed to Santa Anna’s government, the Tejanos of San Antonio suffered further under the occupation of General CosProminent citizens were forced to sweep the city streets,Tejanas had to bake tortillas for the troops, and theMexican forces also took supplies from citizens anddestroyed some of their homes
7The Grass Fight Edward Burleson Erastus “Deaf” Smith Stephen F. Austin learned of his appointment as commissioner to the United States, and Colonel Edward Burleson was chosen by the soldiers to take command in Austin’s place.The Grass FightAfter the fight at Concepción, Stephen F. Austin moved his troops just north of San Antonio, where the Texans were able to lay siege to General Cos’ armySince the Mexican troops had taken the supplies of the local Tejanos, the siege first appeared to have little effect.deaf smithdeaf smithAs Edward Burleson began to consider giving up the siege, one of his scouts, “Deaf” Smith reported that 100 Mexican soldiers with a pack of animals were headed for San Antonio.Erastus “Deaf” Smith
8About 40 Texas cavalry troops and 100 infantry soldiers ambushed the Mexican soldiers and captured their horses,mules, supplies, and cargo.A rumor quickly spread among the Texans that the Mexican soldiers were carrying silver to pay General Cos’ soldiers.The Texan troops eagerly opened the bags that they thoughtcontained silver, but found grass meant to feed horsesThe Texans were disappointed, but it was the first sign that their siege was working.
9Capture of San Antonio Santa Anna had different plans for After the Grass Fight, the Texans were preparing to withdraw to Goliad when they got word that General Cos’ army was weak and disorganized.The Texans attacked San Antonio and battled the Mexican forces for five days. Although Ben Milam was killed in the fighting, the Texans still defeated General Cos, and allowed him to lead his troops back to Mexico.Santa Anna had different plans forTexas, however.With nearly every Mexican soldier forced out of Texas, many Texans thought the fighting was over, and hoped they could now form a state government under the rules of the Constitution of 1824
10The Consultation November 4, 1835 A group of delegates met in San Felipe to decide the future of TexasThe delegates elected Branch T. Archer president of theconvention, and began to attend to the following business:Branch T. ArcherDebate IndependenceCreate provisional governmentChoose commissioners to send to United StatesAddress military matters
11Debating Independence Pro-War Group:Argued that Texas should declareindependencePro-Peace GroupWanted the Constitution of 1824 restoredFeared that declaring independence would cost them the support of the TejanosFelt they were loyal Mexican citizensThe CompromiseDelegates pledged loyalty to MexicoExplained that they only used force to defend themselvesWarned that if the Constitution of 1824 was not restored, Texas would declare independence
12Provisional Government Elected Henry Smith governorElected James Robinson lieutenant governorCreated the General Council to help Smith and Robinson run the government
13Negotiations with the Cherokee The Provisional government sent Sam Houston and an African-American man named William Goyens to make peace with the Cherokee IndiansBecause of their efforts, the Cherokeepromised to remain neutral during therevolution
14Commissioners to the United States Stephen F. AustinWilliam H. WhartonBranch T. Archer
15Texas MilitarySam Houston was named commander-in-chief of the Texas ArmyThe General Counsel created theTexas Navy to protect thecoast and to attack Mexican ships.
16Meanwhile: President Santa Anna and 6,000 Mexican soldiers marched northtowards Texas, bent on revengeTo be continued…..
17By February 1836, Santa Anna was crossing the Rio Grande marching The Mexican Army advancesBy February 1836, Santa Anna wascrossing the Rio Grande marchingtowards San AntonioGeneral José de Urreaapproached fromMatamoros towardsGoliad
18Sam Houston was alarmed by how unprepared the Texans were, and ordered the Alamo destroyed and its artillery removed.Houston sent Jim Bowieto San Antonio to evaluatethe situation there.
19In January 1836, Jim Bowie arrived at the Alamo with 25 men, and decided the Alamo should notbe destroyed.Because of Bowie’s recommendation,Governor Smith ordered Lieutenant ColonelWilliam B. Travis to raise aforce and head toSan Antonio.Col. Travis
20A few days after Travis arrived, Davy Crockett arrived with adozen volunteers fromTennessee.James Bonham soon followedwith a volunteer force fromAlabama.
21William B. Travis was put in command of the Alamo inFebruary 1836Jim Bowie argued with Travis overcontrol of the troops, but finallyagreed to share command with him
22The Alamo was built as a mission, not a fort. So the Texans had towork hard tobuild higher andthicker walls,add cannons,and add highfences made ofstakesThe Alamo needed about 1,000 soldiers toproperly defend it, but would never have morethan 200
23Santa Anna ordered the surrender of the Alamo and the defenders, but the Texans replied with a canon shot fired back at him.In response, Santa Anna raised a red flag that told the Texans that he would take no prisoners and leave no survivors.
24On February 24, 1836 Santa Anna ordered his forces to begin firing on the Alamo.That day William Traviswrote a famous letter“To the People of Texasand All Americans” toplea for help.Jim Bowie had been ill, and collapsed on thesecond day of Santa Anna’s siege. Travis thentook over full command of the Alamo.
25Travis made many more pleas for aid to the provisional government and to Colonel JamesFannin at Goliad, but they sent no help.Alamo FlagThe only help that arrived was when 32 volunteers arrived from Gonzales under cover of the morning darkness.
26On March 6, 1836, Santa Anna launched his assault on the Alamo after 13 days of siege.Texas artillery held the advancing Mexicans offbriefly, but they regrouped and eventuallyoverwhelmed the Alamo defenders and pouredinto the mission by the hundreds
27After a few hours, all the 182 defenders and 600 Mexicans were dead.Santa Anna sparedthe women, children,and a slave namedJoe.Santa Anna felt that the defeat of the Alamowould end the Texas Revolution, but it onlyconvinced the Texans to fight harder.
28Texas Declares Independence The Convention of 1836 was held atWashington-on-the-Brazos to vote onIndependenceSome delegates wereformer members of theUnited States andMexican Governments.
29The vote for independence was unanimous Although two of thesigners of the declarationwere Tejano, manyTejanos opposedthe declaration
30Today Texans celebrate Texas Independence Day March 2, 1836
31A few days later, the delegates learned of the siege of the Alamo and wanted to leave to go to the aid of the Alamo defenders.Sam Houston convinced thedelegates to stay becauseTexas needed a constitutionto form a legitimategovernment.
32The Texas Constitution was modeled after the United States Constitution and guaranteed: Freedom speechFreedom of the pressFreedom of religionRight to trial by jury
33But the constitution also legalized slavery, and required free blacks to petition Congress for permission tostay in Texas.Among those who had to make a petition was Samuel McCulloch Jr., the first Texan to shed blood in the Revolution.
34Since Texas was at war and could not hold elections, an ad interim (temporary) government was installed until elections could be held.
35PresidentVice-PresidentDavid G. BurnetLorenzo de Zavala
36In Gonzales , he heard rumors of the fall of the Alamo and sent Runaway ScrapeIn Gonzales , he heard rumors ofthe fall of the Alamo and sentscouts lead by “Deaf” Smith to findout what happened.Deaf SmithSam Houston left the conventionand headed for San Antonio.The scouts found the Alamo survivors and broughtthem back to Gonzales where they told the storyof the Alamo.
37Word came that Santa Anna was approaching Gonzales, so Houston ordered the town burned and took his army east.As the Texas army moved east, citizens also left their homes to escape Santa Anna.Sam Houston used the retreat to gain time to train his army, as well as to tire out the larger Mexican forcechasing them.
38While General Urrea fought with Fannin’s troops stationed Goliad MassacreGeneral Urrea was moving up the coastline and defeated many Texan troopson his march to Refugioand Goliad.While General Urrea foughtwith Fannin’s troops stationedin Refugio, Fannin receivedorders from Sam Houston to retreat to Victoria.Fannin
39Fannin decided to wait for his troops in Refugio to return before obeying Houston, but those soldiers had been either killed or captured by General UrreaFannin and Urrea finally met at the battle of Coleto, where Fannin was wounded.
40The morning after the battle started, General Urrea receivedseveral hundred more soldiers,and Fannin decided tosurrender.
41The Texan prisoners were marched back to Goliad where they stayed for a week.
42General Urrea wanted to keep them as prisoners of war, but Santa Anna ordered him to executethem all.Grave of Fannin and his men
43When the shooting of the prisoners began, a few of them were able to escape in the smoke and confusion.Some were saved from the Goliad Massacre by Francita Alavez, who was called the Angel of Goliad.
44Battle of San JacintoAfter gathering supplies andtraining his troops during theRunaway Scrape, Houstonmarched his troops downBuffalo Bayou towardsSanta Anna’s camp.Houston found that Santa Anna camped out in the open in a vulnerable spot, and camped his men in a spot that was partially hidden in a grove of trees
45The day before the battle, there were several small fights. In one of the fights, a private namedMirabeau B. Lamar saved thelives of two Texans and waspromoted to Colonel and putin charge of the cavalry.
46Before the battle, Houston sent Deaf Smith on a special mission to destroy the bridge atVince's Bayou.This effectively destroyed the retreat route forboth the Mexican army as well as his Texans .
47On April 21, 1836 Houston ordered his army to attack the exhausted Mexican soldiers as they took their afternoon siestas.words
48Taken by surprise, 630 Mexican soldiers were killed and 730 captured in 18 minutes of fighting
49The next day, Santa Anna was captured while hiding in the nearby marshes.Texas Independence was secured.