Presentation on theme: "Texas Revolution 1835-1836 Cornell Style (there are 29 slides – Last year this was 50+ slides…. SO NO COMPLAINING."— Presentation transcript:
Texas Revolution Cornell Style (there are 29 slides – Last year this was 50+ slides…. SO NO COMPLAINING
Challenge 12-4 Comparing the American and Texas Revolutions SimilaritiesDifferences Both were revolts against harsh rulers who were far away. Both the American colonies and Texas had developed on their own, with little involvement from the ruling country. Both began when rulers enforced laws they had not enforced before. In both, the goals changed as time passed. In both, rebels had to defeat large armies of trained soldiers. The Texas Revolution lasted only 7 months, rather than 6 years. The Texas Revolution had fewer battles. Britain and the American colonies had the same culture. Mexico and the Texans had different cultures. American colonists fought to keep their rights. Texans fought to win rights they did not have. How was the Texas Revolution similar to the American Revolution? A.Texas and British colonist had the same culture as the rulers they fought against B.Texas and British colonists both wanted more self-government C.Texas and British colonist fought for the same rights as citizens of the countries that governed them D.Both revolutions took six years for the patriots to win
Mexican Constitution of 1824 Declared Mexico a federation of free and sovereign states. The document under which TX Colonists were invited to emigrate to MX, and was the one they swore to defend.
Causes Leading to Revolution Fredonian Rebellion Law of April 6, 1830 Anahuac Affair and Turtle Bayou Resolution Stephen F. Austin arrested for inciting rebellion
1835 President Antonio López de Santa Anna declared that Mexico was not ready for democracy and took away the 1824 Constitution. He then centralized national power under himself and declared himself President for life (dictator)
Battle of Gonzales October 2, 1835 The 1st shots of the revolution are fired. Mexican soldiers were sent to Gonzales to take a cannon that was supposed to scare away Indian attacks. Texans did not let the soldiers into town and fired on them, beginning the TX revolution.
Battle of Goliad October 9, 1835 Texas settlers attack Mexican soldiers at Presidio La Bahia near Goliad. The Texans win the battle and force the soldiers to leave, allowing the Texans to take thousands of $’s worth of food and supplies.
Battle of Conception October 28, 1835 In the first major armed battle of Texas's war for independence, the Texas army marches in San Antonio to fight the Mexican soldiers. The Texans are outnumbered 5 to 1, but they are correct about their belief that the Mexican Army is not well-trained and not ready to fight. Texans win
Siege of Bexar December 11, 1835 Still outnumbered 2 to 1, the Texas army attacks Mexican troops at Bexar, today known as San Antonio. After this battle, most of the Texas army goes home because now Texans control almost all of Texas. Texans wins the Siege of Bexar and capture San Antonio. General Cos (Santa Anna’s brother-in-law) and his army are sent back to Mexico City
Areas Controlled by Mexico and Texas, January 1836
Guess who is not a happy camper: President Santa Anna President Santa Anna and 6,000 Mexican soldiers marched north towards Texas, bent on revenge
Alamo The Alamo was built as a mission, not a fort. So the Texans had to work hard to build higher and thicker walls, add cannons, and add high fences made of stakes The Alamo needed about 1,000 soldiers to properly defend it, but would never have more than 200 defenders
Santa Anna ordered the surrender of the Alamo and the defenders, but the Texans replied with a canon shot fired back at him. In response, Santa Anna raised a red flag that told the Texans that he would take no prisoners and leave no survivors.
On February 24, 1836 Santa Anna ordered his forces to begin firing on the Alamo. Jim Bowie had been ill, and collapsed on the second day of Santa Anna’s siege. Travis then took over full command of the Alamo. That day William Travis wrote a famous letter “To the People of Texas and All Americans” to plea for help.
March 6, Texans lose the Battle of the Alamo. After a 13-day attack on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio, Mexican soldiers kill all 189 Texans trying to defend the Alamo. The cruelty of the soldiers leads many Texans and Americans to join the Texas army to fight Mexico.
The Fall of the Alamo All about the Alamo Who: 189 Texans versus thousands of Mexican soldiers What: A fierce battle that the Mexicans won but that gave Texan leaders the time to declare the independence of Texas Where: At an old Spanish mission in San Antonio When: February 23- March 6, 1836 Why: Texans – to stop Santa Anna’s advance; Mexicans – to punish the Texas rebels and make an example of the Alamo’s defenders
Convention of 1836 March 2, 1836 At the Convention of 1836, Texans write a declaration of independence and the Constitution of the Republic of Texas. Sam Houston is named the commander of the Texas military.
The vote for independence was unanimous Although two of the signers of the declaration were Tejano, many Tejanos opposed the declaration
Today Texans celebrate Texas Independence Day March 2, 1836
During the convention, the delegates learned of the siege of the Alamo and wanted to leave to go to the aid of the Alamo defenders. Sam Houston convinced the delegates to stay because Texas needed a constitution to form a legitimate government. Sam Houston*****
Goliad Massacre March 27, 1836 After James Fannin and 400 Texans surrender at the Battle of Goliad, Mexican General Santa Anna orders them executed. The killings make outraged Texans rally even more for their independence.
Runaway Scrape Sam Houston left the convention and headed for San Antonio. The scouts found the Alamo survivors (only the women and children were spared) and brought them back to Gonzales where they told the story of the Alamo. In Gonzales, he heard rumors of the fall of the Alamo and sent scouts led by “Deaf” Smith to find out what happened. Deaf Smith
Word came that Santa Anna was approaching Gonzales, so Houston ordered Gonzales burned and took his army east. As the Texas army moved east, citizens also left their homes to escape Santa Anna. Sam Houston used the retreat to gain time to train his army, as well as to tire out the larger Mexican force chasing them.
words On April 21, 1836 Houston ordered his army to attack the exhausted Mexican soldiers as they took their afternoon siestas.
Battle of San Jacinto April 21, 1836 Led by Sam Houston, the Texas army defeats the troops of Santa Anna and his men while they are taking a siesta at the Battle of Jacinto.
Taken by surprise, 630 Mexican soldiers were killed and 730 captured in 18 minutes of fighting
The next day, Santa Anna was captured while hiding in the nearby marshes. Texas Independence was secured.
Treaties of Velasco May 14, 1836 Officially giving Texas its independence. The Republic of Texas and General Santa Anna sign the Velasco Treaties, which ended the revolution. However, the Mexican gov’t says that Santa Anna did not have the right to sign the treaties and never agreed to the treaties.
President of Texas October 22, 1836 Sam Houston is named President of the Republic of Texas. Virginia native Sam Houston becomes the first president of Texas after it wins its independence from Mexico. He will also be the third president and later becomes the governor of Texas when it joins the United States.