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PG SBI 4U  A GMO is any living things that has had its genome manipulated by humans, usually by inserting a gene from another species  GMOs are very.

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Presentation on theme: "PG SBI 4U  A GMO is any living things that has had its genome manipulated by humans, usually by inserting a gene from another species  GMOs are very."— Presentation transcript:

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2 PG SBI 4U

3  A GMO is any living things that has had its genome manipulated by humans, usually by inserting a gene from another species  GMOs are very important for the food and medicine industries.  Biotechnology is the science of genetic modification.  Also known as genetically engineered, recombinant or transgenic organisms.  In 2008, 13.3 million farmers in 25 countries were growing GMO crops on 1.25 million square kilometers

4  Humans have been manipulating the genomes of organisms for thousands of years  Humans have been using the process of selective breeding to choose the best plants and animals, and to gradually change the genomes of those species  Only the strongest, tastiest and most desirable individuals are allowed to breed and their genes are passed on to their offspring  These organisms not considered to be GMOs

5  Wolves to Dogs:  Teosinte to Corn:

6  Brassica oleracea or wild cabbage has been bred into cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and kale

7  The insertion of foreign genes into organisms  Bacteria: ◦ Plasmids are used as a vector to transfer foreign genes ◦ A restriction enzyme is used to excise a specific gene which will anneal to a plasmid cut with the same enzyme ◦ Bacteriophages are also commonly used to transfer DNA

8  Some plants can be genetically modified by infecting them with a bacterium called Agrobacterium tunefaciens ◦ The desired gene is inserted into the “Ti” plasmid in the bacterium ◦ When a plant is infected it incorporates some the plasmid DNA into its chromosome, so any of the plants offspring will carry those genes  An alternative method is the “Gene gun” ◦ DNA attached to small gold or tungsten particles is fired at a piece of plant tissue

9  Microinjection ◦ the use of a micropipette to insert DNA into a cell ◦ Uses needles 0.5-5μm in diameter ◦ The foreign gene is inserted into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg cell  The genes of animals can also be modified using viruses because viruses naturally insert their DNA into animal cells

10  Bacteria can be made to produce important human proteins by inserting the human genes that code for these proteins into the bacterial genome  Examples: ◦ Human insulin is now produced by E. coli bacteria for diabetics. In the past insulin from pigs or cattle was used and was much less effective ◦ Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is also produced by recombinant bacteria. HGH was previously obtained from cadavers. ◦ Others: Blood clotting Factors and Vaccines  Human proteins can also be produced in the body fluids of transgenic animals then refined

11  Flavr Savr Tomatoes ◦ The first transgenic plants licensed to be eaten by humans  Golden Rice ◦ Rice modified to contain β-carotene ◦ Aimed to combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD) ◦ VAD results in 2.5 million deaths of children under 5 and thousand children going blind every year among other health problems  Insect and disease resistant crops ◦ Soybeans, corn, canola, wheat, etc.

12  GloFish ◦ Zebrafish with a fluorescence gene taken from jellyfish are available as pets  Malaria-resistant mosquitoes ◦ When introduced to the wild they would reproduce and spread the gene through the gene pool, decreasing the number of mosquitoes carrying malaria  “Enviropig”

13  Environmental concerns ◦ GMOs can mate with wild plants and create hybrids ◦ GMOs and hybrids have a selective advantage and will outcompete wild plants ◦ GMOs have unpredictable effects on other organisms (may be poisonous) ◦ Loss of biodiversity  Human safety concerns: ◦ Transgenic food may cause allergic reactions  People allergic to seafood may be allergic to plants with genes from fish ◦ No labeling regulations  Social concerns ◦ Market dominance in the food industry by a few companies

14  Medicines from GMOs are cheaper and of better quality than previous sources, saving lives  Plant GMOs with increased yield and insect/disease resistance provide more food with less land and reduce the need for poisonous pesticides and fertilizers  Food can be modified for increased nutrition  Ecological concerns of escaped GMOs becoming weeds apply equally to other domesticated plants as well as the effects of monocultures of soil health  GMO foods are tested for potential dangers before they are licensed for human consumption

15  Genetic engineering is an exciting field of science and new discoveries are made every day  There may be some dangers but all human inventions have an element of risk  GMOs have a huge potential to improve and save human lives

16  Knudsen, Guy R. "Impacts of agricultural GMOs on wildlands: a new frontier of biotech litigation." Natural Resources & Environment Summer 2011: 13+. Academic OneFile. Web. 3 Dec  Hoyle, Brian, and K. Lee Lerner. "Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 3rd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Dec  Watkins, Terry. "Transgenics." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 3rd ed. Vol. 6. Detroit: Gale, Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Dec  Di Giuseppe, M., Vavitsas, A., Ritter, B., Fraser, D., Arora, A., & Lisser, B. (2003). Biology 12. Toronto: Nelson.  Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. (2011). Biotechnology Online. Retrieved from  Biotech Chronicles. Retrieved from  (2003). Gene Guns. Retrieved from  Pray, L. (2008) Recombinant DNA technology and transgenic animals. Nature Education.,1(1). Retrieved from animals-34513http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/recombinant-dna-technology-and-transgenic- animals  (2010). Glofish. Retrieved from  Gallagher, J. (April 20, 2011). GM mosquitoes offer malaria hope. BBC News. Retrieved from  (2011). DNA Microinjection Services. Retrieved from  (2011). Golden Rice is part of the solution, Biofortified rice as a contribution to the alleviation of life- threatening micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries.  (November 5, 2008). What are Genetically Modified (GM) Foods?. Retrieved from  (2009). Cloning into a Plasmid. Retrieved from

17  Slide 4: breeds_1.php, breeds_1.phphttp://www.learner.org/courses/essential/life/images/show5.maize_teosinte.jpg  Slide 5:  Slide 6:  Slide 7:  Slide 8:  Slide 10:  Slide 11:


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