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Read Chapter 6 “British Literature” Written homework is…

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1 Read Chapter 6 “British Literature” Written homework is…


3 King Arthur and his Knights British myths/ legend/ folk-talke Great King Arthur, Great Kingdom of “Camelot” Knights and Chivalry Magic

4 After our King Arthur discussion, I have questions to ask you, so PAY ATTENTION!

5 Historical or just legend (folklore)? Stories, history Geoffrey of Monmouth - History of the Kings of Britain Sir Thomas Malory - Le Morte d'Arthur Alfred Lord Tennyson - Idylls of the King

6 Geoffrey of Monmouth - History of the Kings of Britain (1136) Geoffrey of Monmouth was a British cleric and historian. Unreliable, but important “National myth”

7 Many people believe a historical King Arthur truly existed, and the Tintagel Castle is believed to have been his home. (Cornwall, England)

8 Sir Thomas Malory - Le Morte d'Arthur -a collection of many King Arthur legends Alfred Lord Tennyson - Idylls of the King -12 narrative poems which retell the legends of King Arthur

9 King Arthur Lancelot Guinevere Merlin Mordred The Lady of the Lake

10 A Knight is a gentleman warrior The “Knightly Virtues:” courage, justice, purity, humility, etc. Women are to be taken care of and protected.


12 Great Warrior King (supernatural and political enemies) King of Britain /Camelot Loved by his Knights Humble, treats others as equals. Helped by Merlin Killed by Mordred

13 For many a petty king ‘ere Arthur came Ruled in this isle, and ever waging war Each upon other, wasted all the land; And still from time to time the heathen host Swarmed overseas, and harried what was left. And so there grew great tracts of wilderness, Wherein the beast was ever more and more, But man was less and less, till Arthur came.

14 Petty ( 狭隘的 – a person who is small- minded) ‘ere (before) Heathen (not Christian or Jewish) host (great many people) To harry, harried ( 骚扰 ) Swarm ( 拥进 )

15 Wizard/Sorcerer Helps many people in the Legends of Arthur.

16 This story comes from Le Morte d’Arthur

17 King Arthur’s mother (Igraine) was a good woman & married the Duke of Cornwall. King Uther falls in love with Igraine Merlin helps King Uther to change his appearance to look like the Duke. Merlin and King Uther make a deal.

18 The King kills the Duke and goes to Igraine’s bed, pretending to be her husband (The Duke) Later he leaves, and Ingraine learns of her husbands death and the imposter. She later marries King Uther Arthur is born and given back to Merlin. King dies soon after

19 Arthur’s wife, who he loves very much, and who betrays him in many stories. (how?)

20 Usually he is portrayed as the greatest Knight who is loyal to Arthur, but who is in love with Guinevere.


22 The traitor who fought King Arthur Both men killed each other In many stories he is Arthur’s son or nephew

23 According to a modern story The Mists of Avalon, Arthur unknowingly has sex with his half-sister during a pagan religious ceremony In other stories, he unknowingly sleeps with his half-sister to produce Mordred.




27 In some stories, she gives Arthur the sword. In some stories she takes the sword after Arthur dies. She is magical, usually helpful, and in some stories she raises Lancelot.


29 Chrétien de Troyes introduced this story of the Quest for the Holy Grail. It is a cup from Jesus’ last supper, believed to have great powers, and so some of the Knights make a journey to search for it.

30 Last Supper

31 In some stories, Arthur is not happy when the men go to seek the Holy Grail, but he allows his most spiritual Knights to go (Percival, Bors, and Galahad).

32 The Knight Percival is famous for seeing the Grail, but he cannot fully look at the grail because of his immaturity The Knight Galahad is able to fully witness the grail. He is believed to be a “Jesus- figure” in the Arthurian Legends

33 Only the most pure are allowed to see the grail.

34 Percival, a Knight of the Round Table, leaves King Arthur’s court and retires to a monastery to become a monk. Another monk asks Percival why he left the Round Table: “was it earthly passion crost?” (crossed)

35 'Nay,' said the knight; 'for no such passion mine. But the sweet vision of the Holy Grail Drove me from all vainglories, rivalries, And earthly heats that spring and sparkle out Among us in the jousts, while women watch Who wins, who falls; and waste the spiritual strength Within us, better offered up to Heaven.'

36 Vainglory (conceited, show-off, have glory) Rivalry ( 竞争 ) Sparkle ( 闪耀 ) joust

37 Galahad and the Grail

38 Why might the Holy Grail represent the end of Arthur’s Knights of the Round Table (especially in Tennyson’s poems)?

39 In many King Arthur legends, the Knights break up, and then King Arthur usually dies in a battle against Mordred.

40 For more than 1,000 years, people have created legends about King Arthur The stories represent a quest for a great and just Kingdom or the loss of such a Kingdom

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