Presentation on theme: "What happens when the colonists have had it with England?"— Presentation transcript:
What happens when the colonists have had it with England?
Alliance- a formal agreement to work together Boycott- to refuse to buy or use a certain product or service Budget- a plan for spending money Declaration- an official statement Liberty- freedom Massacre- a bloody killing of people who can’t defend themselves Repeal- to do away with or cancel Representation- having a voice or chance to make decisions Treason- working against your government; being a traitor
* It was between the French and the British * The French wanted the land because they wanted to connect their claim in Canada and Louisiana * The British wanted the land because they wanted to use it for trading posts with the Native Americans * The French and the British fought each other * In order to make themselves stronger, the formed alliances with the Native Americans * The French and Indian War grew so big that there were battles in North America, Europe and Asia and it became known as the Seven Year’s War * The British beat the French in 1760 in North America but there were still battles going on in Europe * Spain joins the fight against the British but lost * The War ended in 1763 with the British winning
* War is expensive and after 7 years of fighting, the British have no money! * They decide to increase the taxes they are charging the colonists in the New World * The first two major taxes imposed on the colonists were: * Sugar Act * Stamp Act
* Passed in 1764 * Charged tax on sugar that came in to the colonies
* Some colonists were upset with the Sugar Act because they felt that they had no say, or representation in this decision * These people became known as Patriots * Some colonists were in support of the Sugar Act because they felt like Britain had protected them from French or Spanish rule * These people became known as Loyalists
* Passed in 1765 (less than a year after the Sugar Act) * Charged tax on: * Newspapers * Almanacs * Pamphlets * Legal documents * Insurance policies * Licenses * Playing cards * British government knew the colonists wouldn’t be happy with this Act either, so they hired colonial tax collectors
* Rules passed by the British Parliament * British officers were allowed to break into any colonist’s home or office without a cause * The officers were allowed to take anything they wanted out of the homes or businesses * This was against the law in Britain
* James Otis * From Massachusetts * Said taxes were “unjust” or unfair * Encouraged people not to pay the taxes until they had representation in Parliament (British government) * Famous for saying: “No taxation without representation!” * Patrick Henry * From Virginia * Was a part of the House of Burgesses * Encouraged leaders in the House of Burgesses to pass a law that didn’t let Britain make decisions for them * House of Burgesses decided that they wouldn’t pay any taxes to Britain until they had a say in Parliament
* Decided to boycott the British taxed goods * Illegally smuggled products into the colonies from the Netherlands and the Caribbean * Made their own tea or products instead of buying them * Some attacked homes of tax collectors, breaking windows and stealing property * Some beat up the tax collectors and chased them out of town
* Colonists knew they couldn’t go on like this forever and they needed a plan! * In 1765, representatives from 9 of the colonies met in New York to talk about the problem and make a plan
* The representatives talked about the problems caused by the Sugar Act and Stamp Act * Some problems they came up with were: * It wasn’t fair because the colonists didn’t have representation in Parliament * Some people couldn’t afford to pay the tax and they would be tried in court without a jury (so they’d always be found guilty) * British citizens were always entitled to a jury; why shouldn’t the colonists have the same right? * The Writs of Assistance wasn’t happening in Britain, so how was that fair to the colonists?
* John Dickinson was a representative at the Stamp Act Congress from Pennsylvania * He suggested that they send a declaration to King George III
* Official statement sent to King George III * Listed the colonists’ rights as British citizens * Declared that the British government had no right to do what they were doing without giving the colonists a vote
* British merchants were losing money because they counted on the colonists to buy their goods. * Now that the colonists were boycotting their goods, they were in trouble financially * The merchants wanted Parliament to repeal the taxes too! * In March 1766, Parliament repealed the taxes!! * But, trouble is not over!
* Parliament wasn’t giving up so easily- they wanted to prove they still had the power over the colonists! * In 1767, they passed new laws that placed more taxes on the colonists! * Townshend Acts taxed: * Lead * Glass * Paint * Paper * Tea
* To make sure the colonists knew who was in charge, the British government sent more soldiers to the colonies * Parliament said these 9,000 soldiers were to protect British land in Ohio (the lands they won in the French and Indian War) but the majority of the soldiers were stationed on the Atlantic coast (in the 13 colonies!) * The colonists weren’t fooled, and they were ready to fight back!
* The colonists who weren’t happy with the soldiers being stationed in the 13 colonies fought back * They made fun of the British soldiers for their red uniforms and called them * Lobster backs * Bloody backs * Redcoats
* Fights broke out between the colonists and the soldiers * The colonists didn’t want the soldiers to be in the 13 colonies * The soldiers didn’t like being teased and tormented by the colonists * March 5, 1770, there was a big crowd of colonists gathered around a group of British soldiers * The colonists began insulting the soldiers and throwing rocks at them * The soldiers were scared and unprotected so they fired their weapons * A total of five colonists were killed in the Boston Massacre, including Crispus Attucks, a former slave and the first person killed in the fight for American liberty * Paul Revere made a picture of the Boston Massacre making it look like it was the soldiers who had done the wrong thing