Presentation on theme: "Describe the origins, purposes and limitations of government and include the contribution of key philosophers and documents."— Presentation transcript:
Describe the origins, purposes and limitations of government and include the contribution of key philosophers and documents.
King James I’s system worked well for the colonists. King rules by divine right; yet allowed significant liberties: Self-government for example Massachusetts Bay elected a General Court that governed. Religious practices Economic organization
Each state had their own constitutions (fundamental rules for each colony) Land was abundant No feudalism – a tradition of rigid class systems. And absolute authority of church and king. No guild system: craftsmen following strict rules and not allowing for new innovations. No Compulsory tithing – giving a fixed percent of income to church
There was an unwritten contract with the English Colonies. TRADE AND TAXATION Colonist would relinquish (give up) the authority to regulate trade and conduct international affairs. Colonists retained the right to levy (charge) their own taxes.
French and Indian War from 1756 – 1763 The Seven Years War (took place on the “western frontier” of colonies in Canada initiate by the British) Conflict involved: Austria, England, France, Great Britain, Prussia and Sweden Took place in Europe, India and North America In Europe, Sweden, Austria, and France were allied to crush the rising power of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia. The English and the French battled for colonial domination in North America, the Caribbean, and in India (www.ushistory.org) The English dominated after the Treaty of Paris 1763. English needed desperately to pay for their war debts, it almost ended them.
Sugar Act Exports to the colonies were taxed: sugar, wine, coffee and such. Stamp Act Colonist have to purchase stamps for: newspapers, magazines and commercial papers Mutiny or Quartering Act Requiring colonist to house British troops.
Colonies cried: “No taxation without representation” Boycotted goods needing the stamps Threaten British tax collectors lives Burned a colonial governor’s home Outrage, violence and loud protests, riots broke out (not the Boston Tea Party…yet) Men organized forming the Sons of Liberty leading were Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry ◦ STAMP ACT WAS MOST THREATING!
Stamp Act of Congress - 1765 9 of 12 colonies sent representatives to NYC There were conflicting views: colonists thought Parliament had no authority to tax them without representation Parliament believed direct representation was impractical and They represented the best interest for all of England including the colonies Instead the representatives got a list of all their violations to the Crown of England.
Stamp Act and revised the Sugar Act 1766 ◦ Mainly because the uproar made by British merchants Why? (remember the boycotts) ◦ Do you think the colonists were quieted down? ◦ What do you think or remember happening next?
including TEA. Parliament imposed these acts which imposed duties (fees) on all kinds of colonial imports, including TEA. The Sons of Liberty respond immediately ◦ Another boycott – almost everyone gave up tea ◦ Tensions are high ◦ Britain sends 4000 more troops ◦ March 5, 1770 British troops open fire on a dock where workers are upset because Britains were given their jobs and ◦ Sons of Liberty taunted the British solders in front of the Boston Customs House
March 5, 1770 is known as the Boston Massacre All duties were lifted except TEA! Samuel Adams in Boston lead many other Massachusetts towns in setting up Committees of Correspondence. TO KEEP COMMUNICATION AND IDEAS OPEN it also was powerful in molding public open about the British. 12 of the 13 colonies participated
King George the East India Company permission to sell the 18 million pounds of tea in a surplus in English warehouses because of the colonies boycott. Colonial merchants were selling tea from other countries. The East India Company transports the tea to loyal Crown merchants and undercut the other colonial merchants. The bottom line was to drive down the price of tea and hurt colonial merchants who were forced to buy tea at the higher prices from other merchants.
Colonist respond by ◦ Throwing a party, a “tea party” ◦ More tea parties followed King George flew into rage at the actions of his disloyal subjects he is quoted saying, “The die is now cast…The colonies must either submit or triumph”.
Coercive Act 1774 ◦ Colonist called this the INTOLERABLE ACTS ◦ The act called for a total blockade of the Boston Harbor until restitution for the tea was made. ◦ AND it add a provision that reinforced the Quartering Act soldiers could be housed in private homes. Britain sent another 4000 troops.
Samuel Adams and the Committees of Correspondence spread the word ◦ Food and money were sent to the people of Boston Now colonists change their focus from taxes To how much authority does Britain have? They gather with the intention of ironing out their differences with Great Britain.
◦ They wanted: rights of petition and assembly, trial by peers, freedom from a standing army and selection of representative to councils to levy taxes. This was called a Declaration of Rights and Resolves If the king did not agree they would meet again in May 1775
Fighting breaks out April 19, 1775 at Lexington and Concord Massachusetts. Ralph Waldo Emerson called, “the shot heard around the world” Eight colonist soldiers, “Minutemen” were killed and 16,000 British troops besieged Boston
May 10 1775 Delegates are united in the hatred toward Great Britain. There was no options but war ◦ George Washington of Virginia was selected as commander of the new Continental Army ◦ Envoy is sent to France to ask for support They tried one more time to avoid conflict! ◦ Wrote the Olive Branch Petition on July 5, 1775 ◦ King rejects and sends 20,000 more troops
January 1776 by Thomas Paine and encouraged by Benjamin Franklin ◦ ‘Tis Time to Part’ from the corrupt Crown This was an amazing feat, as over 120,000 copies were sold (18.75 million books today). And most people couldn’t read!
Spurred the call for independence “that these United Colonies are and of right ought to be, free and independent States, ad that all connections to Great Britain ought to be dissolved” See sheet on CONFEDERATION
John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston and Roger Sherman were members. Adams wants a balance with the south so Thomas Jefferson is elected as the chair. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. July 2, 1776 12 of 13 colonies voted for independence (New York abstained).
Social Contract Theory and Natural Law advocate. He said people leave the state of nature and agree to set up a government for the protection of property. Property included life, liberty and material possessions Such a government exists for the good of its subjects NOT for the benefit of those governing. Rebellion is the ultimate consequence against a government.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all mean are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. See the connection between Jefferson's writings and John Lockes ideas?
Jefferson did not stop and it was stirring and read aloud July 9, 1776 All the wrongs (denial of personal rights and liberties) of Britain were listed it was signed and sent to King George. ◦ These wrongs were later guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution through the Bill of Rights. The revolutionary war was fought with more vengeance.