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Section II -- The Revolutionary Era and the New Republic, 1740s-1815 Colonial Warfare Commerce and Culture Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Revolutionary.

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Presentation on theme: "Section II -- The Revolutionary Era and the New Republic, 1740s-1815 Colonial Warfare Commerce and Culture Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Revolutionary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section II -- The Revolutionary Era and the New Republic, 1740s-1815 Colonial Warfare Commerce and Culture Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Revolutionary War Founding a new nation A Political Party system Jeffersonian Democracy European entanglements & the War of 1812

2 English colonies in N. America England’s attempt to centralize control over the colonies: Royalization of colonies Navigation Acts Dominion of New England Salutary Neglect Parent-Child Metaphor

3 Navigation Acts Limited colonies’ trade Colonial imports must pass through England first Imposed duties on trade between colonies Appointed customs officials

4 European Wars England vs. France

5 French & Indian War, Iroquois Confederation Fort Necessity, 1754 William Pitt

6 Seven Years War / French-Indian War

7 Loyal Englishmen Proud to be Englishmen View of colonials toward British Islanders View of British Islanders toward colonials

8 Proclamation Line of 1763

9 From loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Troops remain George Grenville Taxation to help pay for present troop deployment Grenville’s Program: Sugar Act, Quartering Act, Stamp Act

10 Stamp Act, 1765 Affected many colonials Creation of the Sons of Liberty Debate over Parliament’s “right” to tax Concept of “Virtual representation”

11 Stamp Act protests Daniel Dulany, Maryland lawyer Disputed “Virtual Representation” argument Ben Franklin, Well-respected Colonial, living in London -- Pushes for Stamp’s repeal Thomas Hutchinson, British official in Boston -- Privately opposes Act, publicly enforces it

12 Stamp Act protests John Dickinson, Penn. Lawyer “Declaration of Rights and Grievances” “Stamp duties have a manifest tendency to subvert the rights and liberties of the colonials”

13 Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Parliament repeals Stamp Act, Feb Parliament passes Declaratory Act, 1766 Townshend Acts, Colonists Boycott taxed items

14 No taxation without Representation John Dickinson “Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer” “the single question is, whether the Parliament can legally impose duties to be paid by the people of these colonies only, for the sole purpose of raising a revenue…. If they can, our boasted liberty is but Vox et proeterea hihil. A sound and nothing else.” “No taxation without representation” argument

15 Boston Massacre, March 1770 Scuffle between a soldier & civilian Mass. Gov. Hutchinson wants England to withdraw some of the troops to prevent provocation John Adams defends soldiers

16 Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Lull in violence & protests Most of Townshend Acts repealed Colonists create Committees of Correspondence

17 Boston Tea Party, Dec Tea Act of 1773 passed East India Tea Co. was bankrupt Equivalent of 3 cents / lb. Colonists viewed Act as forced taxation Dressed as Indians, dumped 340 chests of tea

18 Aftermath of Tea Party Ben Franklin disgraced for stealing Hutchinson’s letters Hutchinson relieved, Gen. Thomas Gage made Gov. and commander of armed forces in N. America Parliament enforces the Coercive Acts

19 Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts Closed port of Boston No town meetings w/o approval Trials of British officials moved outside locations

20 Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries James Wilson, “Considerations on the authority of Parliament”, Aug Penn. Lawyer; studied w/Dickinson Argued that because Colonials were not represented in Parliament, then they were not bound by its laws This represents a significant change in rhetoric

21 Colonial Arguments Debate over concept of “Virtual Representation” – Dulany No one questioned Parliament’s authority over the colonies; Dulany said Parliament could legislate, but not tax because colonists had no direct representation in Parliament “No taxation without representation” argument – Dickinson Stronger sentiment of the illegality of taxing the colonists “Not bound by the laws of Parliament” – Wilson Questions Parliament’s authority to govern the colonies

22 Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Influence of John Locke, “Two Treatises of Government” (1690) Sovereignty presided with the people, not the state Natural law, property rights To revolt against a tyrannical state was an obligation of the people

23 Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Thomas Jefferson, VA planter “A summary view of the rights of British-America”, Aug Concluded that the Acts of Parliament proved a deliberate and systematical plan of reducing us to slavery “That settlements having been thus effected in the wilds of American, the emigrants thought proper to adopt that system of laws under which they had hitherto lived in the mother country, and to continue their union with her by submitting themselves to the same common Sovereign, who was thereby made the central link connecting the several parts of the empire thus newly multiplied."

24 Colonial Arguments Debate over concept of “Virtual Representation” – Dulany Parliament could legislate, but not tax “No taxation without representation” argument – Dickinson Stronger sentiment of the illegality of taxing the colonists “Not bound by the laws of Parliament” – Wilson Questions Parliament’s authority to govern the colonies T.J.’s “Summary View” Says Parliament has no authority over the colonies, only the King does; implied that colonies may be driven to separate, unless King did something

25 Colonial Perspectives George Washington John Dickinson Ben Franklin Thomas Hutchinson A slave Benedict Arnold A loyalist in South Carolina

26 Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Continental Congress Sept. 1774, Philadelphia 50+ delegates from the colonies Colonists initially distrusted one another Agreed to arm themselves Sent a letter to King George III affirming their loyalty to the Crown, but notifying him of their decision to arm for protection

27 The English View King George III and Parliament viewed colonists as rebellious children Sent more troops to Boston to quell revolt King George III

28 Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Lexington Green, April, 1775

29 Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Siege of Boston, Spring 1775 Clashes at Fort Ticonderoga & Crown Pointe, Summer nd Continental Congress meets in Emergency Session Militia surrounding Boston becomes the default Continental Army w/Washington as its commander

30 Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Thomas Jefferson, “Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms,” July 6, 1775 Presented to King by the (2 nd ) Continental Congress “...we assure them that we mean not to dissolve the Union which has so long and so happily subsisted btn us, and which we sincerely wish to see restored. Necessity has not yet driven us into that desperate measure.... We have not raised armies with ambitious designs of separating from Great Britain, and establishing independent states."

31 Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Majority of the delegates to Continental Congress still opposed outright independence King George III declares that the colonies are in a state of rebellion

32 Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries Thomas Paine writes Common Sense January, 1776 Blames King Wins populace over to Independence Movement

33 Colonial Arguments – Loyal Englishmen to Revolutionaries “Virtual Representation” – Dulany debated concept Parliament could legislate, but not tax “No taxation without representation” argument – Dickinson “Not bound by the laws of Parliament” – Wilson Questions Parliament’s authority to govern the colonies Thomas Jefferson, “Summary View” Says Parliament has no authority over the colonies, only the King does; implied that colonies may be driven to separate, unless King did something Thomas Paine, “Common Sense” Blames the King; Old World vs. New World; justifies independence movement

34 War for Independence Declaration of Independence Drafted by Jefferson, Adams & Franklin Approved by Congress, July 4, 1776

35 Declaration of Independence Parliament is missing from arguments; King is identified as the enemy Struggle for all mankind John Locke influence Continental Congress becomes National Gvt. Articles of Confederation

36 American Revolutionary War Loyalists, Neutrals and Patriots 1 st British strategy: isolate New England Thomas Paine, “The Crisis”

37 American Revolutionary War Battle of Saratoga Oct Gates & Arnold defeat the British Stops the British plans of dividing the colonies in two parts France decides to enter the war on the side of the colonials; Feb. 1778

38 American Revolutionary War British win at Brandywine & Germantown, then occupy Philadelphia, the colonial capital Valley Forge, PA – Winter of Arrival of Prussian Officer Wilhelm von Steuben; helps train Continental Army

39 American Revolutionary War Britain’s Southern strategy, 1778 – Pacification To exploit loyalist strength Utilize possible Indian allies Foment a slave uprising Capture tobacco

40 American Revolutionary War May 1780 Charleston surrenders Aug Battle of Camden, British victory Benedict Arnold defects, Sept In the South the British are led deeper into the interior Atrocities committed by Loyalists, Patriots and outlaws

41 American Revolutionary War War for Independence becomes an international war with France & Spain entering against Britain Colonial army under Nathaniel Greene eludes British under command of Gen. Cornwallis Cornwallis leads troops to Yorktown, VA to be re- supplied

42 American Revolutionary War French commanders: Marquis de Lafayette Comte de Rochambeau British and colonial use of slaves

43 American Revolutionary War Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown in Oct. 1781

44 American Revolutionary War Treaty of Paris, Sept. 3, 1783 British recognized American independence Boundaries from Canada in the North, the Mississippi River to the West, and Florida in the South Losers: Britain France Native Americans Slaves in the South


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