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Colonial Resistance and Rebellion

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Presentation on theme: "Colonial Resistance and Rebellion"— Presentation transcript:

1 Colonial Resistance and Rebellion
Objectives: Summarize colonial resistance to British taxation. Trace the mounting tension in Massachusetts. Examine efforts made to avoid war between the colonies and the British. Summarize the historical background of the Declaration of Independence.

2 The Colonies Organize to Resist Britain
Between 1763 and 1774 the British government carried out a number of acts that outraged colonists Proclamation of 1763 – Sought to halt colonial expansion west of the Appalachian Mountains The Sugar Act As a result of the French and Indian War, Britain was in a financial crisis England had nearly doubled its national debt To lower the national debt, King George III tightened economic control on the colonies Sugar Act (1764) – Did three things: Halved the duty of foreign-made molasses in the hopes that colonists would pay a lower tax rather than risk arrest from smuggling Placed duties on certain imports that had not been taxed before Provided that colonists accused of violating the act would be tried by a single judge rather than a jury of sympathetic colonists Colonists argued that parliament had no right to tax the colonies because colonists had not elected representatives to the body

3 The Colonies Organize to Resist Britain
The Stamp Act (1765) Imposed a tax on documents and printed items A stamp would be placed on the document to ensure the tax had been paid Unlike the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act was the first tax that affected the colonists directly because it was levied on goods and services Colonists united to defy the law Sons of Liberty – Secret resistance group founded to protest the Stamp Act Merchants agreed to boycott British goods until the law was repealed In 1766 Parliament repealed the law The same day Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, it enacted the Declaratory Act Stated that the colonies are bound to the laws set forth by Parliament The Townshend Acts (1767) – Taxed goods imported into the colony and tea In response, colonists once again boycotted British goods

4 Tension Mounts in Massachusetts
Violence Erupts in Boston As hostilities between colonists and the British mounted, the atmosphere in Boston grew increasingly tense Boston Massacre (1770) – Confrontation between colonists and British soldiers in which five colonists were killed The Boston Tea Party Tea Act (1773) – Granted the British East India Company the right to sell tea to the colonies free from the taxes that colonial tea sellers had to pay This action would cut colonial tea merchants out of the tea trade American colonists protested Boston Tea Party (1773) – Event in which colonists disguised as Native Americans boarded and dumped 18,000 pounds of the East India Company’s tea into Boston Harbor

5 The Intolerable Acts (1774)
A series of measures passed by Parliament in response to colonial disobedience: Shut down Boston harbor Authorized British troops to quarter in private homes Boston was placed under martial law In response to the Intolerable Acts, the committees of correspondence held the First Continental Congress in 1774 Drew up a declaration of colonial rights Defended the colonies’ right to run their own affairs

6 The Road to Revolution After the First Continental Congress met, colonists stepped up military preparations Minutemen Fighting at Lexington and Concord British troops moved to seize a weapons cache from colonists in Concord, Massachusetts Battle of Lexington First battle of the Revolutionary War After Lexington, the British marched on to Concord where they found an empty arsenal As they marched back to Boston, the British were attacked by Minutemen who fired from behind trees and stone walls

7 The Road to Revolution The Second Continental Congress
In 1775, colonial leaders held the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia It was agreed that the colonial militia would be recognized as the Continental Army George Washington was appointed as its commander The Battle of Bunker Hill British troops trapped in Boston, decide to attack nearby Breed’s Hill On July 8, 1775 Congress sent King George the Olive Branch Petition hoping to return to the harmony that once existed between the colonies and England King George rejected the petition and urged parliament to order a naval blockade of the American coast

8 The Patriots Declare Independence
The Ideas Behind the Revolution The Enlightenment John Locke – English philosopher who stated that all people have the natural rights to life, liberty, and property “Social Contract” Thomas Paine’s Common Sense Common Sense – Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that attacked King George and the monarchy Stated American independence would give Americans the chance to create a better society Declaring Independence Congress appointed a committee to prepare a formal Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson was chosen to write up the declaration Jefferson drew upon Locke’s ideas Declaration was approved on July 4th, 1776

9 The War for Independence
Objectives: Trace the war through the winter at Valley Forge. Examine civilian life during the Revolution. Trace the war in the South through the siege of Yorktown. Recognize the symbolic value of the Revolution.

10 The War Begins Loyalists and Patriots
Loyalists – Those who opposed independence and remained loyal to the British king African Americans Promised freedom Native Americans Saw colonists as a threat to their lands Patriots – Supporters of independence Early Victories and Defeats As part of a plan to stop the rebellion by isolating New England, the British quickly seized New York City Desperate for a victory to hold his army together, Washington risked everything on one bold move December 25th, 1776 – Washington launches a surprise attack across the Delaware at Trenton “Victory or death” Defeated a garrison of Hessian soldiers quartered there Hessians – German mercenaries hired by the British

11 American Strengths and Weaknesses
Familiarity of home ground Leadership of George Washington and other officers Inspiring cause of independence Weaknesses Most soldiers were untrained and undisciplined Shortage of food and ammunition Inferior navy No central government to enforce wartime policies

12 British Strengths and Weaknesses
Strong, well trained army and navy Strong central government with available funds Support from colonial Loyalists and Native Americans Weaknesses Large distance separating Britain from battlefields Troops unfamiliar with terrain Weak military leaders Sympathy of certain British politicians for the American cause

13 The War Begins (cont.) Saratoga and Valley Forge
Battle of Saratoga (1777) – American troops surround and defeat British General John Burgoyne Turning point in the war Bolstered France’s belief that the Americans could win the war French sign an alliance with the Americans in 1778 Winter at Valley Forge

14 Life During the Revolution
Impact of War on Civilians Women had to fill the roles held by men off at war Managed farms and businesses Some women traveled with their husbands where they assisted the army in noncombatant roles Molly Pitcher African Americans Many escaped to freedom during the chaos of the war Others served in the Continental Army

15 Winning the War During their winter at Valley Forge, the Continental Army underwent a radical transformation With the assistance of European military leaders, the Continental Army became a disciplined fighting force Friedrich von Steuben Marquis de Lafayette The British Surrender at Yorktown Treaty of Paris (1783) – Confirmed US independence and set the boundaries of the new nation

16 The War Becomes a Symbol of Liberty
During the war, social distinctions had begun to blur Egalitarianism – A belief in the equality of all people Ability and virtue defined one’s worth, not wealth or family background In reality, this new concept only applied to white males Women gained no new political rights Most African Americans remained enslaved Those who were free still faced discrimination

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