Presentation on theme: "Taxonomy and Binomial Nomenclature"— Presentation transcript:
1 Taxonomy and Binomial Nomenclature BiologyPost Falls High School
2 Why Classify? To name organisms This is binomial nomenclature To place them in logical relationshipsSeparate by differencesGroup by similaritiesThis is taxonomy
3 Why give scientific names? Many different organisms may share a common nameBuzzard = hawk (England) or vulture (U.S.)Gopher = rodent in West, turtle in S.E.
4 Why give scientific names? Many organisms have more than one common nameMt. lion, puma, cougarMoose, hirvi
5 Beginnings of Classification Aristotle ( BC) classified all living things he knewPlant or AnimalOrganized Plants into herb, shrub, or tree according to size and structureOrganized Animals by habitat and physical differencesBirds, bats, and some insects grouped together because they all have wings and fly!
6 Binomial Nomenclature To avoid confusion each has 2 part scientific nameGenus name + specific epithet (species name); genus capitalized/species notSpecies name is often descriptiveWritten in italics (or underlined)In LatinDead languageNever changes in meaning
9 Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linne) born on May 23, 1707, in the province of Småland in southern SwedenUniversity of Uppsala, finished his medical degree at the University of Harderwijktraining in botany was part of the medical curriculum, for every doctor had to prepare and prescribe drugs derived from medicinal plants
10 Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linne) published the first edition of his classification of living things, the Systema Naturaeprofessorship at Uppsala in 1741, he restored the University's botanical garden (arranging the plants according to his system of classification)died in 1778
11 Linnaean Classification Hierarchical with 7 levels, or taxa (taxon-singular)Kingdom, phylum (division in plants), class, order, family, genus, species
12 American LobsterMarket SquidBlue MusselVirginia OysterEuropean OysterPhylumArthropodaMolluscaClassMalacostracaCephalopodaBivalviaOrderDecapodaMytiloidaPterioidaFamilyNephropidaeLoliginidaeMytilidaeOstreidaeGenusHomarusLoligoMytilusCrassostreaOstreaSpeciesamericanusopalescensedulisvirginica
13 Value of Taxonomy1. Taxonomy works out for us a vivid picture of the existing organic diversity of the earth. 2. Taxonomy provides much of the information permitting a reconstruction of the phylogeny of life. 3. Taxonomy reveals numerous interesting evolutionary phenomena. 4. Taxonomy supplies classifications which are of great explanatory value in most branches of biology and paleontology.5. Taxonomy organizes known lifeforms.
14 Alterations to Taxonomy Biologists now group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, or phylogeny, not just physical/chemical similaritiesThis means similar genes and DNA is a strong contributor in modern taxonomic decisionsEx. American vulture, African vulture, and stork
15 CladogramIdentifies and considers only those characteristics that are evolutionary innovations (new traits that arise as species change over time)New traits in later members of lineage called derived characteristicsUsed to construct cladogram, a diagram that shows evolutionary relationships
31 Without a set of international rules to follow, the results of taxonomy would be confusing at best. The rules of zoological nomenclature are contained in a document known as the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). The object of the code is to promote stability and universality in the scientific names of animals. All names must be unique, universal, and show stability. Uniqueness Every name has to be unique. If several names have been given to the same taxon, priority decides which name will be the valid name. Universality Zoologists have adopted, by international agreement, a single language to be used on a worldwide basis. All animals are given a generic and specific name in Latin. These names are in italics or are underlined (i.e. Homo sapiens). Stability The ICZN attempts to prevent the frequent changing of names to provide stability.