Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 18: Classification

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18: Classification"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18: Classification

2 18–1 Finding Order in Diversity
Life on Earth has been changing for more than 3.5 billion years 1.5 million species named between 2 and 100 million additional species have yet to be discovered

3 Why Classify? organize living things into groups that have biological meaning Taxonomy = discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name

4 Assigning Scientific Names
Common names are confusing and vary among languages or even regions Ex: cougar, mountain lion, panther, puma different species sometimes share a single common name Ex: buzzard: hawk? Vulture? Scientists have agreed to a single name for each species Use Latin & Greek

5 Binomial Nomenclature
Carolus Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, 1700s binomial nomenclature = classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name written in italics first word is capitalized, the second word is lower case

6 Scientific Names grizzly bear is called Ursus arctos
Ursus — is the genus Genus = group of closely related species arctos – is the species unique to each species within the genus Often a Latinized description of some important trait of the organism or an indication of where the organism lives Ursus maritimus, the polar bear maritimus, referring to the sea


8 Linnaeus's System of Classification
Hierarchical - it consists of levels includes seven levels from smallest to largest—species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom. Each level is called a taxon or taxonomic category


10 Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)
Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Chordata Class – Mammalia Order – Carnivora Family –Ursidae Genus –Ursus species - arctos

11 Humans Kingdom = Animalia Phylum (Division for plants) = Chordata
Class = Mammalia Order = Primates Family = Hominidae Genus = Homo species = sapiens

12 Taxonomic groups above the level of species are “invented” by researchers who decide how to distinguish between one genus, family, or phylum, and another.

13 Phylogeny = the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
Biologists now group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, or phylogeny, not just physical similarities.

14 evolutionary classification = method of grouping organisms together according to their evolutionary history

15 The higher the level of the taxon, the farther back in time is the common ancestor of all the organisms in the taxon.

16 Cladogram = diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms




20 The genes of many organisms show important similarities at the molecular level.
Similarities in DNA can be used to help determine classification and evolutionary relationships. The more similar the DNA sequences of two species, the more recently they shared a common ancestor, and the more closely they are related in evolutionary terms.

21 Dichotomous Key A dichotomous key is a tool that allows the user to determine the identity of items in the natural world, such as trees, wildflowers, mammals, reptiles, rocks, and fish. Keys consist of a series of choices that lead the user to the correct name of a given item. "Dichotomous" means "divided into two parts". Therefore, dichotomous keys always give two choices in each step.


23 18–3 Kingdoms and Domains There are now 6 Kingdoms – listed below.

24 Domain = most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than a kingdom

25 Eubacteria Unicellular Prokaryotic Autotroph or heterotroph
Cell walls with peptidoglycan Examples: E. coli, Streptococcus, Staph

26 Archaebacteria unicellular prokaryotic extreme environments
volcanic hot springs, brine pools, and black organic mud totally devoid of oxygen Auto or heterotroph cell walls lack peptidoglycan

27 Protista eukaryotic greatest variety Most single-celled, some multi
photosynthetic or heterotrophic Ex: kelp, amebas, slime mold, paramecium, euglena


29 Fungi heterotrophs Eukaryotic Most multicellular, some uni
feed on dead or decaying organic matter Eukaryotic Most multicellular, some uni Cell walls of chitin EX: mushroom, yeast

30 Plantae multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs Eukaryotic
Cells walls of cellulose

31 Animalia  multicellular heterotrophic Eukaryotic No cell walls

Download ppt "Chapter 18: Classification"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google