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ClassificationClassification Alan D. Morales, M.Ed., ATC/L.

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Presentation on theme: "ClassificationClassification Alan D. Morales, M.Ed., ATC/L."— Presentation transcript:

1 ClassificationClassification Alan D. Morales, M.Ed., ATC/L

2 Why do we classify? To organize organisms into groups that have biological meaning Taxonomy-the study that classify organisms & assign each organism a universally accepted name. Uses Greek & Latin language

3 Why do they uses common names? Common names was confusing. Same organism may have different names –Puma, cougar, panther, mountain lion Different species may shared single common name –Buzzard: US-Vulture; UK- Hawk

4 How does an organism get it assigned scientific name? Binomial Nomenclature –Created by Carolus Linnaeus –Two-part naming system –Always written in italics –1 st word is capitalized and 2 nd word is lowercased 1 st word-the genus 2 nd word-the species (refers to important trait of organism or where it lives) Example: Grizzly Bear- Ursus arctos

5 Linnaeuss System of Classification 7 Taxonomic Categories –Species –Genus –Family –Order –Class –Phylum –Kingdom Sam Gave Fred One Copper Padlock Key. Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom


7 Modern Evolutionary Classification Traditional classification problem: –Classifying organisms with similar body structure or important traits Evolution Classification –Strategy of grouping organism together based on evolutionary history

8 Cladistic analysis-identifies & considers only those characteristics of organisms that are evolutionary innovation Derived characters-characteristics that recently appeared in lineage not in older members Cladogram-a diagram that shows the evolutionary relationship among a group of organisms.

9 Cladogram is similar to a family tree in that it shows relationships common among relative organisms. Grandparents mother you son daughter brother niece nephew aunt cousin 2nd cousin 3 rd cousin cousin 2 nd cousin uncle cousin 2nd cousin 3 rd cousin

10 Classification Tools DNA & RNA –Scientist examine DNA & RNA to help determine classification of organism –Example: Amer. vulture, African vulture, & Stork Molecular Clock –Used to mark evolutionary change in organism by comparing the DNA

11 Kingdom & Domains Early Tree of Life were misguided assumptions Linnaeus Taxonomy did not adequately represent the full diversity. 6 Kingdom System of Classification –Eubacteria –Archaebacteria –Protista –Fungi –Plantae –Animalia

12 Domain System Developed with uses of comparative studies on RNA & molecular clock Larger than a Kingdom System –Bacteria Eubacteria –Archaea Archaebacteria –Eukarya Protista, Fungi, Plantae, & Animalia

13 Classification of Living Things Domain BacteriaArchaeaEukarya Kingdom EubacteriaArchaebacteriaProtistaFungiPlantaeAnimalia Cell Type Prokaryote Eukaryote Cell Structure Cell wall w/ peptidoglycan Cell wall w/o peptidoglycan Cell wall of cellulose in some; some have chloroplast Cell wall of chitin Cell wall of cellulose; chloroplast No cell wall or chloroplast # of Cells Unicellular Most unicellular; some multicellular Most multicellular; some Unicellular Multicellular Mode of Nutrition Autotroph or Hetertroph HetertrophAutotrophHetertroph Examples StreptococcusHalophilesSlime molds, giant kelp Mushroom, yeast Mosses, ferns, plants Sponges, insects, fishes, mammals

14 The End

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