Presentation on theme: "History of Classification"— Presentation transcript:
1 History of Classification Finding Order in Diversity
2 History of Classification For more than 3.5 billion years, life on Earth has been constantly changing.Natural Selection has led to a staggering diversity of organisms.Biologists have identified and named about 1.5 million species so farEstimate that 2 and 100 million have not yet been discovered.
3 Classification Why classify? By using a scientific name, biologists can be certain that everyone is discussing the same animal.TaxonomyA discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name.
4 History of Classification How are living things organized for study?a. When you hear the word “bird”, what mental picture appears?A flying animal that has feathers
5 History of Classification In a good system of classification, organisms placed into a particular group are more similar to each other than they are to other organisms in different group.EX: We use a classification system. When you refer to “teachers”, or more specifically “zoology teachers”.
6 History of Classification By the 18th century, European scientists realized that referring to organisms by common names was confusing. Common names vary among languages.For example a cougar can also be called a puma, a panther or a mountain lion.Southern california are called mountain lions. Florida calls them panthers.
7 History of Classification In England, the word buzzard refers to a hawk whereas in many parts of the US, buzzard refers to a vulture.
8 History of Classification Aristotle’s SystemThe first attempt at standardizing scientific names basically described the physical characteristics of a species.EX: scientific name of a particular tree might be “Oak with deeply divided leaves that have no hairs on their undersides and no teeth around their edges.”
9 History of Classification Carolus LinnaeusSwedish botanist who lived during the 18th century.binomial nomenclatureClassification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name.Bi is latin for “two” and nomen is latin for “name”.
10 1. Linnaeus’s System of Classification Classification system with 7 levelsEach level called taxon (plural: taxa)Why 7 levels?Lots of organisms
11 Classification System KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesCountryStateCountyCityNeighborhoodStreetHouse #
12 Kingdom Largest taxonomic group, consisting of closely related phyla Eukaryotes2 original kingdomsAnimaliaPlantae
13 PhylumGroup of closely related organisms that share important characteristicsEx: Chordata – Humans & Bears
14 Class & Order Class – group of similar orders Mammalia Internal regulation of body temp. (warm-blooded)Have body hairProduce milk for youngOrder – broad taxonomic category composed of similar familiesCarnivoraBears - UrsidaeDogs – CanidaeCats - felidae
15 Family Share many characteristics EX: Bears – Ursidae and Ailuropoda Polar bearsGrizzly bearsPanda bearGrouped in larger category, Ursidae (all bears)
16 Genus & SpeciesGenusGroup of closely related species, and the first part of the scientific name in binomial nomenclature.SpeciesGroup of organisms that can breed and produce offspring that are fertile.Grizzly BearUrsus arctosGiant PandaAiluropoda melanoleucaPolar BearUrsus maritimus
17 Binomial Nomenclature 2-word naming systemEach species is assigned a 2 part nameAlways written in italics or underlinedFirst word is always capitalizedGenus speciesTwo smallest categories, genus and species (one organism). Ursus are grouped in a larger category. EX: polar bear in this genusGrizzly bear ~ Ursus arctos
18 Questions??? How are organisms classified? Living things are classified according to shared characteristics and organized into 7 categories.What is binomial nomenclature?A two-word naming systemExplain the difference between Aristotle’s system and Linnaeus's system of classification?Aristotle’s common name system which can differ due to in languages.Linnaeus’s system of binomial nomenclature
19 Modern Evolutionary Classification What characteristics do scientists use to classify organisms?
20 Modern Classification Organisms choose with whom they will mate.Group organisms according to biologically important characteristics.Linnaeus’s system grouped animals according to visible similarities and differences.Problems???
21 Modern Classification How would you classify the crab, limpet, and barnacle?
22 Look more closely! Limpet and barnacle larvae are very different. CRABLimpet and barnacle larvae are very different.Barnacles have jointed limbs.Limpets DON’T !Barnacles have a segmented bodyBarnacles have an exoskeleton that molts.
23 Look more closely! Crab and barnacle larvae are very similar LIMPETCRABBARNACLECrab and barnacle larvae are very similarBarnacles have jointed limbs.So do CRABS !Barnacles have a segmented bodyBarnacles have an exoskeleton that molts.Barnacles and crabs share an evolutionary ancestor that is more recent than the ancestor that barnacles share with limpets.
24 Modern Classification Limpet’s are mollusks and have a foot like clams and limpet’s shell is one structure whereas barnacles’ shell have interlocking plates.
25 Modern Classification Evolutionary ClassificationDarwin’s ideas about descent with modification gave rise to the study of phylogeny.The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms.Evolutionary relationship of the Phylum Chordata
26 Modern Classification Evolutionary classificationMethod of grouping organisms together according to their evolutionary history.All members of a genus share a recent common ancestor.
27 Modern Classification CladogramDiagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms.Derived characterCharacteristic that appears in recent parts of a lineage, but not in its older members.DerivedCharacters
28 Modern Classification Similarities in DNA and RNAGenes of many organisms show important similarities.DNA can be used to determine classification and evolutionary relationships.They urinate on their legs which cools and removes body heat and storkes behavior the same way.Are these organisms related?
29 Traditionally these first two were Similarities in DNA can be used to help show evolutionary relationships and how species have changed.African vulture American vulture StorkTraditionally these first two wereclassified together in falcon family.Storks were put in a separate family.
30 The only other bird that does this is the STORK. American vultures have a peculiar behavior. When they get overheated, they urinate on their legs to cool offAfrican vulture American vulture StorkThe only other bird that does this is the STORK.
31 DNA comparisons showed more similarities between American vulture and stork DNA than DNA from the two kinds of vultures suggesting a more recent common ancestor between storks and American vultures.African vulture American vulture Stork
32 Questions???What characteristics do scientists use to classify organisms.Biological:Structure (including similarities in DNA)PhysiologicalbehavioralEvolutionary relationships; phylogenyHow are evolutionary relationships important in classification?Accurate placement of organisms within their phylogenic tree.
33 What are the three-domain systems of classification? Domains and KingdomsWhat are the three-domain systems of classification?BacteriaArchaeEukaryota
34 3 Domain SystemModern organisms have been grouped according to how evolvedDomainMore inclusive category; larger than a kingdom.3 Domains:Bacteria – unicellular & prokaryoticArchaea - extremophilesEukarya – unicellular & multicellular Eukaryotes
35 3 Domain System Eubacteria Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycans
36 3 Domain SystemArchaeaDomain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycanThey live in extreme environments.Colonies of haloarchaea on agar plates
37 3 Domain SystemEukaryaDomain of all organisms whose cells have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi and animals.
41 Kingdom ProtistaThe kingdom Protista is composed of eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified as animals, plants or fungi,They can be unicellular or multicellular; photosynthetic or heterotrophic; and can share characteristics with plants, fungi or animals.
42 Kingdom FungiKingdom composed of heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter (decomposers).They can be either multicellular (mushrooms) or unicellular (yeasts).
43 Kingdom PlantaeMembers of the Kingdom Plantae are multicellular, photosynthetic autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose.Plants are nonmotile – they cannot move from place to place.
44 Kingdom AnimaliaMembers of the Kingdom Animalia are multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells do not have cell walls.There is great diversity within the animal kingdom, and many species exist in nearly every part of the world.