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Ecology Seminar today -- 4:10 (ISB 110) Amy Angert – Colorado St. Ecology and evolution of geographical range limits.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology Seminar today -- 4:10 (ISB 110) Amy Angert – Colorado St. Ecology and evolution of geographical range limits."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology Seminar today -- 4:10 (ISB 110) Amy Angert – Colorado St. Ecology and evolution of geographical range limits

2 Becky Fletcher



5 banner Wings = 2 unfused Keel = 2, fused calyx bilateral symmetry 5 sepals 5 petals Fabaceae – papilionaceous flowers


7 Fabaceae - Pea/Bean family Gynoecium 1 carpel = 1 ovary superior ovary 

8 Fabaceae - Pea/Bean family Fruit type (unique to family) Legume = dry, dehiscent fruit (1 carpel) splitting on 2 sutures 

9 Fabaceae - Pea/Bean family 

10 Lupinus - Lupines  palmately compound leaves often silvery (hairy) foliage showy terminal racemes

11 Astragalus - Milkvetch pinnately compound leaves low-growing, foliage often silvery (hairy) some poisonous/medicinal (locoweeds) >50 native species!!

12 Other notable native legumes DaleaThermopsis

13 Vicia - Vetches pinnately compound leaves tendrils, vine-like habit ‘one-sided’ racemes 

14 Many non-native legumes have been introduced for hay, pasture and “green manure” Trifolium (clovers) Medicago (alfalfa) Melilotus Lotus

15 Subclass Asteridae (aka Asterids) Monocots Basal Eudicots CaryophyllidsRosidsAsterids Eudicots

16 Subclass Asteridae (aka Asterids)  >50 families world-wide  monophyletic (shared, exclusive common ancestor)  diverse, but not as many woody species as Rosidae  more “advanced” or derived flowers  corollas often tubular (petals connate)  flowers often have bilateral symmetry  whorls often fused (adnate), but hypanthiums rare

17 some local Asteridae

18 Important Asterid families worldwide Ebenaceae (Ebony) Lecythidaceae (Brazil Nuts) Sarraceniaceae (Pitcher Plants) Theaceae (Tea/Camelia) Rubiaceae (Coffee) Convolvulacae (Sweet Potatoes) Apocynaceae (Milkweeds) Oleaceae (Olives) Gesneriaceae (African Violets) Aquifoliaceae (Hollies)

19 Important Asterids in Montana Families-to-knowGenera-to-know EricaceaeCampanula (Campanulaceae) PolemoniaceaeCornus (Cornaceae) SolanaceaePhiladelphus (Hydrangaceae) BoraginaceaeDodecatheon (Primulaceae) Scrophulariaceae Lamiaceae Caprifoliaceae Apiaceae Asteraceae

20 Today -- Woody families/genera in Asteridae Ericaceae Philadelphus Cornus Caprifoliaceae

21 Ericaceae - Heath or Rhododendron family  Wordwide distribution 130 genera, >2500 species all regions, especially in montane habitats Ecology/Life history often woody perennials (shrubs), some herbs strong associations with mycorrhizae often grow in acid soils (bogs, conifer forests, etc.)

22 Associations w/ Ericoid mycorrhizae (fungi) provide access to nutrients, especially Phosphorus

23 Heath communities dominated by Ericaceae shrubs Chaparral (California) Fynbos (South Africa) Montane Heath (Alberta)

24 Ericaceae - Heath family  In Montana ~15 genera, ~30 species common, especially at higher elevations Habit perennial herbs shrubs

25 Woody Ericaceae (many evergreen)

26 Herbaceaous Ericaceae Pyrola Allotropa (Candystick) Monotropa (Indian Pipe) Saprophytes/ Parasites -- no chlorophyll, steal sugars from other plants or fungi

27 Ericaceae - Heath family  Leaves simple alternate (or opposite, whorled) often dentate sometimes evergreen missing in saprophytes Inflorescences clusters, corymbs or racemes Chimaphila (Prince’s Pine)

28 Ericaceae - Heath family  Flowers bisexual symmetry radial (most) or bilateral (ex. Rhododendron) flowers often urn-shaped (urceolate) and pendulous

29 Ericaceae - Heath family  Sepals usually 5 (may be fused) Petals 5, connate (fused into tube) Stamens usually 10, distinct may be adnate to corolla Gynoecium variable (2-10 fused carpels, inferior or superior) always 1 style (hollow)

30 Ericaceae - Heath family  Fruit types berry capsule Rhododendron

31 Vaccinium -- Huckleberry  In Montana ~6 species Habitat open conifer woodlands montane shrublands Growth habit shrubs (.2 - 2 m tall) mostly deciduous (here)

32 Vaccinium -- Huckleberry  Flowers connate (fused) calyx urceolate corolla ovary inferior Fruit = berry color variable

33 Vaccinium -- Huckleberry  Grizzly bear foods (by volume in scat)

34 Arctostaphylos -- Bearberry  In Montana 1 species here -- A. uva-ursi (aka Kinnickinnick) genus name and specific epithet both mean “bear-grape” Many others further West (aka manzanitas) Habitat open conifer woodlands rocky areas Growth habit creeping shrub *evergreen*

35 Arctostaphylos -- Bearberry  Flowers connate calyx urceolate corolla ovary superior Fruit = berry (drupe-like) red fruit (mealy, not juicy) seeds large relative to berry

36 Caprifoliaceae - Honeysuckle family  In Montana 5 genera, 14 species mostly woody shrubs & vines 1 common herb (Linnaea) Lonicera (Honeysuckle) Sambucus (Elderberry)

37 Caprifoliaceae - Honeysuckle family  Leaves opposite simple or compound Inflorescences “umbel-like cyme” OR a pair of flowers => twinflower, twinberry

38 Caprifoliaceae - Honeysuckle family  Flowers regular (most) OR irregular (Lonicera) often w/ bracts below Sepals 5, fused Petals 5, fused into tube Stamens 4 or 5, epipetalous Gynoecium 2-5 locules, 1 style position variable (usually inferior)

39 Caprifoliaceae - Honeysuckle family  Fruit berry (most), drupe (Viburnum) or capsule (Linnaea)

40 Symphoricarpos - Snowberry  - low shrubs of open woods - deciduous, entire leaves - short, tubular flowers - fruit a 2-seeded berry or drupe - white or pink, not tasty

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