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Asterids – Campanulids Spring 2014. Fig. 8.83 Asterids – Campanulids Basal Asterids Order Ericales Lamiids Order Solanales Order Gentianales Order Lamiales.

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Presentation on theme: "Asterids – Campanulids Spring 2014. Fig. 8.83 Asterids – Campanulids Basal Asterids Order Ericales Lamiids Order Solanales Order Gentianales Order Lamiales."— Presentation transcript:

1 Asterids – Campanulids Spring 2014

2 Fig. 8.83

3 Asterids – Campanulids Basal Asterids Order Ericales Lamiids Order Solanales Order Gentianales Order Lamiales Campanulids Order Apiales *Apiaceae – carrots, parsley Order Dipsacales Caprifoliaceae – honeysuckle Adoxaceae – viburnum, elderberry Order Asterales *Asteraceae – sunflowers *family required for recognition

4 Asterids -- Campanulids: Apiales: Apiaceae (The Carrot Family; Umbelliferae) Nearly cosmopolitan Usually herbs; aromatic with ethereal oils, terpenoids, saponins and other compounds; leaves alternate with sheathing bases; internodes usually hollow Diversity: 3,780 species in 434 genera Flowers: Small, inconspicuous. Sepals 5, distinct, very reduced; petals 5, distinct but developing from a ring-like primordium, usually inflexed; stamens 5, filaments distinct; carpels 2, connate, inferior ovary; fruit a schizocarp, the 2 dry segments (mericarps) attached to an entire to deeply forked central stalk (carpophore) Significant features: Aromatic parts; inflorescences usually involucrate compound umbels (sometimes simple or condensed into a head); styles basally swollen to form a nectar-secreting structure (stylopodium) atop the ovary; seeds with oil glands Special uses: Herbs and spices, vegetables (carrot, Daucus; celery – Apium; parsnip - Pastinaca), parsley (Petroselinum) Family required

5 Apiaceae Anethum Zizia Cicuta Daucus

6 Apiaceae reduced calyx inflexed petals inferior ovary 2 carpels stylopodium

7 Apiaceae schizocarps

8 Apiaceae: Daucus -bristly annuals or biennials with pinnately dissected leaves -umbels compound -involucre of more or less conspicuous pinnate bracts -flowers all or nearly all perfect, mostly with pedicels -mericarps with 5 slender, bristly 1° ribs and 4 winged 2° ribs involucre

9 What part of the plant are you eating? Apiaceae anise dillcaraway

10 What part of the plant are you eating? Apiaceae

11 What part of the plant are you eating? Apiaceae parsley

12 What part of the plant are you eating? Apiaceae parsnipcarrot

13 Asterids -- Campanulids: Dipsacales: Caprifoliaceae (The Honeysuckle Family) Widely distributed, especially in northern temperate regions Herbs, shrubs, small trees and lianas; leaves opposite, simple Diversity: 810 species in 36 genera (in the broad sense) Flowers: Sepals 5, connate; petals 5, connate, often with 2 upper and 3 lower lobes or 1 upper and 4 lower lobes; stamens (1-) 4-5, filaments adnate to the corolla; carpels 2-5, connate, style elongate, stigma capitate, inferior ovary; fruit a capsule, berry, drupe, or achene. Significant features: Flowers bilateral; large, spiny pollen Special uses: Ornamentals: honeysuckle (Lonicera), Weigela, Symphoricarpus (snowberry) Family not required

14 Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera -erect or climbing shrubs -leaves entire -calyx teeth very short -corolla tubular or funnelform, often more or less irregular -fruit a several-seeded berry

15 Campanulids: Dipsacales: Adoxaceae (The Elderberry family) Widespread in temperate regions of the N. Hemisphere but also in mountainous regions of S. Hemisphere Small trees, shrubs or perennial herbs; leaves opposite, simple or trifoliolate or pinnately compound Diversity: 245 species in 5 genera Flowers: Bisexual, radial, small; sepals 2-5, connate, reduced; petals 4-5, connate, well developed but with a usually short tube; stamens 5, pollen with a reticulate exine; carpels 3-5, style(s) short; fruit a drupe, with 1-5 pits Significant features: inflorescences determinate, umbellate, showy Special uses: ornamentals (Viburnum, Sambucus), also jellies and wines Family not required

16 Adoxaceae Adoxa Sambucus Viburnum

17 Adoxaceae: Viburnum -shrubs or small trees -leaves simple -inflorescences compound cymes -flowers usually white (rarely pink) -corolla spreading, deeply 5-lobed -ovary 3-carpellate, but two abort -fruit a 1-locular, 1-seeded drupe

18 Adoxaceae: Sambucus (elderberry) -herbaceous, shrubby or arborescent -leaves pinnately compound -inflorescences compound cymes -corolla broadly spreading -fruit a drupe containing 3 pits

19 Campanulids: Asterales: Asteraceae (The Sunflower Family – Most diverse family of angiosperms) Cosmopolitan Herbs or shrubs (trees); resin canals or laticifers often present Diversity: 23,600 species in ca. 1,600 genera Flowers: Sepals highly modified to form a scaly or hairy pappus; petals 5, connate, forming a tubular, bilabiate, radial or bilateral corolla; anthers fused into a tube around the style (syngenesious); pollen plunger mechanism present; carpels 2, connate, inferior ovary; fruit an achene (cypsela), often with adherent pappus (calyx parts) Significant features: flowers densely arranged into indeterminate heads (capitula), surrounded by involucral bracts (phyllaries), often with differentiation in inner flowers and outer flowers (disk and ray flowers); various pollination and dispersal syndromes Special uses: Food plants: sunflower (Helianthus), chicory (Cichorium), artichoke (Cynara), lettuce (Lactuca); many ornamentals (marigolds, zinnias, chrysanthemum, dahlia, etc.). Family only

20 The ultimate pseudanthium

21 Asteraceae disk + ray florets Involucre of phyllaries Berlandiera Pseudanthium = false flower

22 Asteraceae Floral Terminology: Head (= capitulum) Pseudanthium Involucre Phyllaries Floret Ligulate or ray floret Disk floret

23 Asteraceae: ray flower/floret

24 Asteraceae: disk flower/floret

25 disk flowers only ray flowers only ray and disk flowers Three flower arrangements

26 Asteraceae: Taraxacum -perennial or biennial herbs -heads many-flowered, large, solitary on a slender hollow scape, of only ray flowers -pappus feathery, becoming raised on a stalk as the achene matures -involucre reflexed at fruit maturity for wind dispersal Seeds produced mostly by asexual means

27 Asteraceae: Helianthus -coarse, stout herbs -involucre of overlapping phyllaries -heads solitary or in a corymb, many-flowered, with both ray and disk flowers, the ray flowers with a yellow corolla -chaff persistent -pappus easily deciduous, of 2 thin scales, sometimes 2 or more smaller scales also present

28 Asteraceae: Solidago -perennial herbs -stem leaves sessile or nearly so -heads small, mostly in racemes or clusters -heads few- to many-flowered, mostly of ray flowers -ray flowers usually 1-20 per head, pistillate -pappus simple, of equal fine bristles -achenes nearly terete

29 -heads in branched clusters -heads of ray flowers -flowers yellow -ca species Senecio

30 What part of the plant are you eating? Asteraceae artichoke

31 What part of the plant are you eating? Asteraceae chicory

32 What part of the plant are you eating? endive Asteraceae lettuce

33 What part of the plant are you eating? safflower oil Asteraceae

34 What part of the plant are you eating? Asteraceae sunflower

35 Asteraceae Economic plants and products: Medicinal plants Camomile (Athemis)

36 Asteraceae Economic plants and products: Weedy plants: Dandelion (Taraxacum)

37 Asteraceae Economic plants and products: Weedy plants: Ragweed (Ambrosia)

38 Asteraceae Economic plants and products: Ornamentals: Chrysanthemum (mums; Chrysanthemum) Dahlia (Dahlia) Daisy (Chrysanthemum) Marigold (Tagetes) Sunflower (Helianthus) Zinnia (Zinnia)

39 Ecological Roles


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