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ANNOUNCEMENTS Exam 1 is Wednesday Review session: Tuesday 5:00-6:00 Location TBA – check web page.

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Presentation on theme: "ANNOUNCEMENTS Exam 1 is Wednesday Review session: Tuesday 5:00-6:00 Location TBA – check web page."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANNOUNCEMENTS Exam 1 is Wednesday Review session: Tuesday 5:00-6:00 Location TBA – check web page

2 Caryophyllidae Caryophyllaceae Opuntia (Cactaceae) Lewisia Polygonaceae Chenopodium

3 Amaranthaceae - Amaranth family (includes Chenopodiaceae) Key features In Montana: 17 genera, <50 species (most in Chenopodium) Habit: mostly herbs, some shrubs Often in disturbed areas, poor soils (e.g. Atriplex) Atriplex (Saltbush) Chenopodium salt glands

4 Amaranthaceae - Amaranth family lots of crops spinach beets amaranth amaranth seeds

5  Habit: herbs, very branchy Stems: ridged, angular Leaves: alternate, simple Agrostemma Chenopodium - Goosefoot, Lamb’s Quarters leaf shape variable often w/white undersides C. album

6  Flowers Mostly bisexual; radial; reduced Arranged in dense, “mealy” spikes Sepals: 5 Petals: 0 or 5 Stamens: 2-5 Pistil: 1 superior ovary, 2-3 styles Agrostemma Chenopodium - Goosefoot

7 Kochia scoparia (burning bush or summer-cypress)

8 Polygonales Nepenthaceae - tropical pitcher plants Droseraceae - sundews and venus flytraps Drosera - 2 species in Montana Carnivorous plants -- get nutrients from trapped insects as well as soil

9 Polygonaceae - Buckwheat family In Montana: 12th largest -- 5 genera, ~55 species Habit: mostly herbs, some shrubs Leaves: simple; alternate or basal EriogonumRumex 

10 Polygonaceae - Buckwheat family Sheathing stipule (ocrea) 

11 Polygonaceae - Buckwheat family Inflorescences: variable Flowers: regular, often bisexual Tepals: (look like sepals) Stamens: Gynoecium: 1 pistil, 1-3 styles superior ovary 

12 Polygonaceae - Buckwheat family  Fruit type: achene - usually triangular Rumex

13 Polygonum - Knotweeds ~20 species in Montana several non-native/invasive - tiny flowers - sheathing stipules at nodes

14 Eriogonum - Buckwheats  E. flavum ~20 species in Montana >50 species in Rockies! Habit: perennial herbs - often mat-like or creeping - taproot/woody root crown Leaves: basal, simple, entire - often hairy/fuzzy - no ocreas

15 Eriogonum - Buckwheats  Inflorescence: compound umbel w/ involucres (bracty cup at base)

16              umbel compound umbel involucre = cup of bracts at base of inflorescence       

17 Eriogonum Flowers: regular, bisexual Tepals: 6, connate or distinct Stamens: 9 Gynoecium: 1 pistil, 3 styles Color: very variable, even within species (white, pink, yellow) Fruit: 3-angled achene 

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19 Plant life histories Different means to the same end: survival & reproduction

20 Lifespan and timing of reproduction Ideal plant strategy: 1)live forever 2)make lots of seeds every year Why not?

21 Lifespan and timing of reproduction Ideal plant strategy: 1)live forever 2)make lots of seeds every year Why not? Limited resources (light, nutrients, water etc.)  tradeoff between survival/growth and reproduction (usually...)

22 Lifespan and timing of reproduction Life history strategies high adult mortality --> reproduce now! ex. weeds, vernal pool plants high seedling mortality --> just survive! ex. trees, grassland forbs

23 Lifespan and timing of reproduction: herbs (woody trees and shrubs are all perennial by definition) Annual  1st year: flowers, dies Biennial  1st year: makes rosette  2nd year: flowers, dies Perennial  Lives for multiple years  May or may not flower in any year Mimulus douglasiiOenothera biennisBalsamorhiza and Lupinus

24 Lifespan and timing of reproduction iteroparity - reproduce repeatedly semelparity- reproduce once, then die etc.

25 Lifespan and timing of reproduction Agave (Century Plant) extreme semelparity

26 Roots (and other below-ground structures)  anchoring  water and nutrient absorption  water and carbohydrate storage TaprootFibrous roots Adventitious roots

27 Storage roots ?

28 Modified stems rhizome = horizontal, rootlike stem stem roots rhizome shoot buds tuber (extra-starchy rhizome)

29 Modified stems stolon = an aboveground horizontal stem with long internodes Saxifraga Fragaria plantlets


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