2 In this Unit… Chapter 15: The Nation Breaking Apart Chapter 16: The Civil War BeginsChapter 17: The Tide of War TurnsChapter 18: Reconstruction
3 Why It Matters NowThe Civil War represented the greatest threat to the survival of the American republic in our history. Why we fought, how the Union won, and how we rebuilt the nation remain enduring matters of discussion and debate.
4 Chapter 16: The Civil War Begins Lesson 1: War Erupts
5 In this Chapter… Lesson 1: War Erupts Lesson 2: Life in the Army Lesson 3: No End in Sight
6 Essential QuestionWhat events, leaders, and strategies shaped the early years of the war?
7 What were the strategies of the North and the South? Key QuestionWhat were the strategies of the North and the South?
8 VocabularyFort Sumter: Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South CarolinaConfederacy: Nation formed by Southern statesRobert E. Lee: Confederate general, commander of the Army of Northern VirginiaAnaconda Plan: Union strategy to defeat the Confederacy
9 ExpectationsSoutherners expected a short war that they would easily winNortherners expected the same!Americans slowly realized the war would be long and difficult.
10 First Shots at Fort Sumter South took control of the Union’s federal fortsFort Sumter ran out of suppliesIf Lincoln sent supplies… he risked warIf Lincoln surrendered the fort… he would be giving in to the rebelsHe decided to send supplies and notify the ConfederacyConfederate leaders decided to attack the fort before the supplies arrivedApril 12, 1861Confederate troops open fired34 hours of shootingUnion troops surrenderedNo one was killedThis marked the start of the Civil War
11 Lincoln Calls out the militia Lincoln asked Union states to provide 75,000 militiamen for 90 days to put down the uprisingA militia is a group of individuals who are civilians that are called for in emergency situationsThe Northern states responded with enthusiasmThe upper South responded with defianceSoon additional states secededVirginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and ArkansasNot all slave states secededDelaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri
12 States Choose Sides = Union States = Confederate State = Slave State not seceding = Territory/Not State
13 Preparing for Battle Virginia was very important to the South RichPopulous (many people)Confederacy moved their capital to RichmondHome of Robert E. LeeLee resigned from the US army and joined the ConfederacyAfter Virginia secededPeople wondered about the border statesTheir locations and resources were importantAll stayed with the UnionLater, the western counties of Virginia broke away and formed the new state of West Virginia and joined the UnionIn total: 24 Union states and 11 Confederate states
14 Planning Strategies Union Confederacy Started with a defensive strategyHoped to gain allies with Great Britain and France because of their dependence on cottonThey did not joinDid invade the North a couple timesStrategy was offensiveInvade and conquerAnaconda PlanDesigned to strangle the South’s economy like a giant anaconda snake squeezing its preyNaval blockade of the South’s coastlineControl the Mississippi River (would split the Confederacy in two)Capture Confederate capital (Richmond, VA)
16 Comparing North and South ConfederacyUnionStrengthsLarge population (22 million)85% of nation’s factories70% or nations railroadsStrong navyWeaknessesDepended on long supply linesFewer good military leadersSoldiers were fighting an offensive warStrengthsLarge areaGood generalsSoldiers were fighting to protect their homelandWeaknessesSmall population5.5 million free; 3.5 slavesFew factoriesFewer railroadsNo naval power
17 First Battle of Bull Run People called for an attack on Richmond, VAThe Union army would have to defeat the Confederate troops at Manassas, VA firstJuly 16, 1861Union forces marched to ManassasTroops were joined by hundred of spectators who expected a quick and entertaining battleUnion forces attacked at Bull RunConfederate troops were driven backBut….A regiment led by Thomas J. Jackson stopped the Union troops“There is Jackson standing like a stone wall!”Nicknamed “Stonewall” JacksonConfederate troops charged while letting out the “rebel yell”Union soldiers ran for their lives and spectators were shockedConfederacy wonCasualties2,700 for the North2,000 for the SouthIt became obvious that this would be a deadly war.
18 Battle of Bull RunSome showed up as early as 3 am to tailgate in their coach-and-fours, drink champagne, and grill cucumber sandwiches.
19 Lessons of Bull Run Three points became clear The fighting would be bloodyThe war would not be over quicklySouthern soldiers would fight fiercely to defend the ConfederacyAfter Bull Run, Lincoln realized the 90-day militias were no match for Confederate forcesHe sent them home and called for a real army of 500,000 volunteers for 3 yearsHe appointed George McClellan as Commander of the Union army
20 What were the strategies of the North and the South? Key QuestionWhat were the strategies of the North and the South?
21 Chapter 16: The Civil War Begins Lesson 2: Life in the Army
22 In this Chapter… Lesson 1: War Erupts Lesson 2: Life in the Army Lesson 3: No End in Sight
23 Essential QuestionWhat events, leaders, and strategies shaped the early years of the war?
24 What difficulties did soldiers face? Key QuestionWhat difficulties did soldiers face?
25 Vocabulary Enlist: To join the armed forces Hygiene: Conditions and practices that often promote health
26 One American’s Story“I am glad that Jim has not joined any [regiment] and I hope he never will. I would not have him go for all my pay; it would be very improbable that we could both go through this war and come out unharmed. Let him come here and see the thousands with their arms and legs cut off, or if that won’t do, let him go as I did the other day through Frederick hospitals and see how little account a man’s life and limbs are held in by others. - Major Peter Vredenburgh
27 Civilians Become Soldiers Majority of soldiers were years oldSome were as young as 11Some were as old as 83On both sides, men rushed to enlistGerman and Irish immigrants also joinedAt the beginning, African Americans were not allowed to fightThroughout the warAbout 2 million served in the Union ArmyLess than 1 million served in the Confederate ArmyVolunteers were sent to training campUnion soldiers were given blue uniformsConfederate soldiers wore gray or yellowish-brownClothing, shoes, and food grew scarce as the war went on
28 A New Kind of WarAdvances in military technology brought many casualtiesMedical technologies were poor and filthy conditions spread diseaseCamps were dirty and smelled of garbage and latrinesSoldiers often did not bathe or wash their clothingFlea infestationPoor hygiene spread diseaseDoctors often performed surgery without washing their handsBecause of these conditions, more men died from disease than on the battlefield
29 Civil War Prison CampsWar was difficult for all soldiers, but the worst for prisonersPrisoners faced terrible conditionsMany died of sickness and exposure to severe weatherLittle shelterDrinking water could come from a creek that was also a sewerOthers died from starvation and disease
30 Changes in Military Technology Improvements had huge effects on the warRifles and Minié BallsRifle has a grooved barrel that spins the bulletMinié ball expands upon firingCould shoot farther and more accurately than musketsChanges in Naval WarfareIronclads were warships covered with ironFaster and better protectedFamous Ironclad BattleUnion’s the Monitor fought Confederate’s the MerrimacNeither side wonDespite new technology, neither side was able to defeat the other in the first two years of the war
31 What difficulties did soldiers face? Key QuestionWhat difficulties did soldiers face?
32 Chapter 16: The Civil War Begins Lesson 3: No End in Sight
33 In this Chapter… Lesson 1: War Erupts Lesson 2: Life in the Army Lesson 3: No End in Sight
34 What events, leaders, and strategies shaped the early years of war? Essential QuestionWhat events, leaders, and strategies shaped the early years of war?
35 What were some important victories of the North and South? Key QuestionWhat were some important victories of the North and South?
36 Vocabulary Ulysses S. Grant: Union general who won battles in the west Battle of Shiloh: Bloody battle in Tennessee won by GrantWilliam Tecumseh Sherman: Union general at the Battle of ShilohBattle of Antietam: Battle in Maryland that ended Lee’s first invasion of the North
37 Union Victories in the West George McClellan was the current Union general in the EastThe Union had just lost at Bull RunMcClellan restored the soldiers’ confidence and spent time organizing and training themHe was reluctant to attack Richmond and spent more time training the troopsUlysses S. Grant was the current Union general in the WestGrant’s strategy: “Find out where your enemy is. Get at him as soon as you can. Strike at him as hard as you can, and keep moving on.”In February 1862, Grant used ironclads to capture to Confederate river forts in TennesseeThe Union gunboats could now travel as far as Alabama by river
38 The Battle of Shiloh Grant followed troops into Mississippi Confederates surprise attacked Union troops near Shiloh ChurchThis was the fiercest fighting in the war so farUnion general, William Tecumseh Sherman, had 3 horses shot out from under himEach side believed they would win in the morningTerrible thunderstorms during the nightDuring the night, Union reinforcements arrivedGrant led an attack at dawn and forced the Southern troops to retreatCasualtiesUnion: 13,000 (about 1/5 of the 65,000)Confederate: 11,000 (about ¼ of the 41,000)Many people in the North wanted Lincoln to fire Grant because of the high casualties
40 The Fall of New OrleansApril 25, 1862: Union fleet led by Admiral Farragut captured New Orleans (the largest city in the South)Farragut’s ships had to run through cannon fire and dodge burning rafts in order to reach the cityThis was a heavy blow to the South“New Orleans gone – and with it the Confederacy. Are we not cut in two? – Mary Chesnut (South Carolinian)The Union was well on its way to achieving their goal of cutting the Confederacy in twoConfederacy still controlled the heavily armed fort at Vicksburg
42 Lee’s Victories June 1862: Lee takes charge of the army of Northern VirginiaJune 25-July 1, Seven Days’ BattleSent men to spy on General McClellan who reported their positionLee attacked McClellan’s army for a weekThe number of casualties was horrificUnion: 15,849Confederacy: around 20,000Although the Confederates suffered more losses, the Union was forced to retreatThe Union plan to capture Richmond had failedConfederates won again at Bull RunUnion troops were pushed back to WashingtonLee had ended the Union threat to VirginiaRenewed the Confederate hopes of winning the war2
43 Lee Invades the NorthBecause of recent victories, Lee decided to go on the offensiveInvaded Maryland in September 1862Reasons:Hoped a victory in the North would force Lincoln into peace talksInvasion would give Virginian farmers a rest during harvest seasonConfederates could plunder, or steal from, Northern farms for foodShow that the Confederacy could win the war, which could convince European nations to side with the South
44 Battle of Antietam Lee drew up a plan for his invasion of the North A Confederate officer accidentally left a copy of the battle plans wrapped around 3 cigars at a campsiteUnion troops passed through and found the plansThe captured plans gave McClellan a chance to stop LeeMcClellan went on the attack, but moved slowlySeptember 17, 1862 at Antietam Creek, MarylandLee and McClellan clashedBloodiest day in American history
45 Battle of Antietam“Again and again… by charges and counter-charges, this portion of the field was lost and recovered, until the green corn that grew upon it looked as if it had been struck by a storm of bloody hail… From sheer exhaustion, both sides, like battered and bleeding athletes, seemed willing to rest.”- John B. Gordon (Confederate officer)Neither side had gained any ground by nightfallThe only difference was that 23,000 men were dead or woundedLee lost almost ¼ of his army, withdrew to VirginiaThe cautious McClellan did not follow, missing a chance to finish off the crippled Southern armyLincoln was so frustrated that he fired McClellan