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1846-1877. Chapter 15: The Nation Breaking Apart Chapter 16: The Civil War Begins Chapter 17: The Tide of War Turns Chapter 18: Reconstruction.

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Presentation on theme: "1846-1877. Chapter 15: The Nation Breaking Apart Chapter 16: The Civil War Begins Chapter 17: The Tide of War Turns Chapter 18: Reconstruction."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 15: The Nation Breaking Apart Chapter 16: The Civil War Begins Chapter 17: The Tide of War Turns Chapter 18: Reconstruction

3 The Civil War represented the greatest threat to the survival of the American republic in our history. Why we fought, how the Union won, and how we rebuilt the nation remain enduring matters of discussion and debate.

4 Lesson 1: War Erupts

5 Lesson 2: Life in the Army Lesson 3: No End in Sight

6 What events, leaders, and strategies shaped the early years of the war?

7 What were the strategies of the North and the South?

8 Fort Sumter: Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina Confederacy: Nation formed by Southern states Robert E. Lee: Confederate general, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia Anaconda Plan: Union strategy to defeat the Confederacy

9 Southerners expected a short war that they would easily win Northerners expected the same! Americans slowly realized the war would be long and difficult.

10 South took control of the Union’s federal forts Fort Sumter ran out of supplies If Lincoln sent supplies… he risked war If Lincoln surrendered the fort… he would be giving in to the rebels He decided to send supplies and notify the Confederacy Confederate leaders decided to attack the fort before the supplies arrived April 12, 1861 Confederate troops open fired 34 hours of shooting Union troops surrendered No one was killed This marked the start of the Civil War

11 Lincoln asked Union states to provide 75,000 militiamen for 90 days to put down the uprising A militia is a group of individuals who are civilians that are called for in emergency situations The Northern states responded with enthusiasm The upper South responded with defiance Soon additional states seceded Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas Not all slave states seceded Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri

12 = Union States= Confederate State = Slave State not seceding= Territory/Not State

13 Virginia was very important to the South Rich Populous (many people) Confederacy moved their capital to Richmond Home of Robert E. Lee Lee resigned from the US army and joined the Confederacy After Virginia seceded People wondered about the border states Their locations and resources were important All stayed with the Union Later, the western counties of Virginia broke away and formed the new state of West Virginia and joined the Union In total: 24 Union states and 11 Confederate states

14 Confederacy Started with a defensive strategy Hoped to gain allies with Great Britain and France because of their dependence on cotton They did not join Did invade the North a couple times Union Strategy was offensive Invade and conquer Anaconda Plan Designed to strangle the South’s economy like a giant anaconda snake squeezing its prey Naval blockade of the South’s coastline Control the Mississippi River (would split the Confederacy in two) Capture Confederate capital (Richmond, VA)

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16 Confederacy Strengths Large area Good generals Soldiers were fighting to protect their homeland Weaknesses Small population 5.5 million free; 3.5 slaves Few factories Fewer railroads No naval power Union Strengths Large population (22 million) 85% of nation’s factories 70% or nations railroads Strong navy Weaknesses Depended on long supply lines Fewer good military leaders Soldiers were fighting an offensive war

17 People called for an attack on Richmond, VA The Union army would have to defeat the Confederate troops at Manassas, VA first July 16, 1861 Union forces marched to Manassas Troops were joined by hundred of spectators who expected a quick and entertaining battle Union forces attacked at Bull Run Confederate troops were driven back But…. A regiment led by Thomas J. Jackson stopped the Union troops “There is Jackson standing like a stone wall!” Nicknamed “Stonewall” Jackson Confederate troops charged while letting out the “rebel yell” Union soldiers ran for their lives and spectators were shocked Confederacy won Casualties 2,700 for the North 2,000 for the South It became obvious that this would be a deadly war.

18 Some showed up as early as 3 am to tailgate in their coach-and-fours, drink champagne, and grill cucumber sandwiches.

19 Three points became clear The fighting would be bloody The war would not be over quickly Southern soldiers would fight fiercely to defend the Confederacy After Bull Run, Lincoln realized the 90-day militias were no match for Confederate forces He sent them home and called for a real army of 500,000 volunteers for 3 years He appointed George McClellan as Commander of the Union army

20 What were the strategies of the North and the South?

21 Lesson 2: Life in the Army

22 Lesson 1: War Erupts Lesson 2: Life in the Army Lesson 3: No End in Sight

23 What events, leaders, and strategies shaped the early years of the war?

24 What difficulties did soldiers face?

25 Enlist: To join the armed forces Hygiene: Conditions and practices that often promote health

26 “I am glad that Jim has not joined any [regiment] and I hope he never will. I would not have him go for all my pay; it would be very improbable that we could both go through this war and come out unharmed. Let him come here and see the thousands with their arms and legs cut off, or if that won’t do, let him go as I did the other day through Frederick hospitals and see how little account a man’s life and limbs are held in by others. - Major Peter Vredenburgh

27 Majority of soldiers were years old Some were as young as 11 Some were as old as 83 On both sides, men rushed to enlist German and Irish immigrants also joined At the beginning, African Americans were not allowed to fight Throughout the war About 2 million served in the Union Army Less than 1 million served in the Confederate Army Volunteers were sent to training camp Union soldiers were given blue uniforms Confederate soldiers wore gray or yellowish-brown Clothing, shoes, and food grew scarce as the war went on

28 Advances in military technology brought many casualties Medical technologies were poor and filthy conditions spread disease Camps were dirty and smelled of garbage and latrines Soldiers often did not bathe or wash their clothing Flea infestation Poor hygiene spread disease Doctors often performed surgery without washing their hands Because of these conditions, more men died from disease than on the battlefield

29 War was difficult for all soldiers, but the worst for prisoners Prisoners faced terrible conditions Many died of sickness and exposure to severe weather Little shelter Drinking water could come from a creek that was also a sewer Others died from starvation and disease

30 Improvements had huge effects on the war Rifles and Minié Balls Rifle has a grooved barrel that spins the bullet Minié ball expands upon firing Could shoot farther and more accurately than muskets Changes in Naval Warfare Ironclads were warships covered with iron Faster and better protected Famous Ironclad Battle Union’s the Monitor fought Confederate’s the Merrimac Neither side won Despite new technology, neither side was able to defeat the other in the first two years of the war

31 What difficulties did soldiers face?

32 Lesson 3: No End in Sight

33 Lesson 1: War Erupts Lesson 2: Life in the Army Lesson 3: No End in Sight

34 What events, leaders, and strategies shaped the early years of war?

35 What were some important victories of the North and South?

36 Ulysses S. Grant: Union general who won battles in the west Battle of Shiloh: Bloody battle in Tennessee won by Grant William Tecumseh Sherman: Union general at the Battle of Shiloh Battle of Antietam: Battle in Maryland that ended Lee’s first invasion of the North

37 George McClellan was the current Union general in the East The Union had just lost at Bull Run McClellan restored the soldiers’ confidence and spent time organizing and training them He was reluctant to attack Richmond and spent more time training the troops Ulysses S. Grant was the current Union general in the West Grant’s strategy: “Find out where your enemy is. Get at him as soon as you can. Strike at him as hard as you can, and keep moving on.” In February 1862, Grant used ironclads to capture to Confederate river forts in Tennessee The Union gunboats could now travel as far as Alabama by river

38 Grant followed troops into Mississippi Confederates surprise attacked Union troops near Shiloh Church This was the fiercest fighting in the war so far Union general, William Tecumseh Sherman, had 3 horses shot out from under him Each side believed they would win in the morning Terrible thunderstorms during the night During the night, Union reinforcements arrived Grant led an attack at dawn and forced the Southern troops to retreat Casualties Union: 13,000 (about 1/5 of the 65,000) Confederate: 11,000 (about ¼ of the 41,000) Many people in the North wanted Lincoln to fire Grant because of the high casualties

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40 April 25, 1862: Union fleet led by Admiral Farragut captured New Orleans (the largest city in the South) Farragut’s ships had to run through cannon fire and dodge burning rafts in order to reach the city This was a heavy blow to the South “New Orleans gone – and with it the Confederacy. Are we not cut in two? – Mary Chesnut (South Carolinian) The Union was well on its way to achieving their goal of cutting the Confederacy in two Confederacy still controlled the heavily armed fort at Vicksburg

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42 June 1862: Lee takes charge of the army of Northern Virginia June 25-July 1, Seven Days’ Battle Sent men to spy on General McClellan who reported their position Lee attacked McClellan’s army for a week The number of casualties was horrific Union: 15,849 Confederacy: around 20,000 Although the Confederates suffered more losses, the Union was forced to retreat The Union plan to capture Richmond had failed Confederates won again at Bull Run Union troops were pushed back to Washington Lee had ended the Union threat to Virginia Renewed the Confederate hopes of winning the war

43 Because of recent victories, Lee decided to go on the offensive Invaded Maryland in September 1862 Reasons: Hoped a victory in the North would force Lincoln into peace talks Invasion would give Virginian farmers a rest during harvest season Confederates could plunder, or steal from, Northern farms for food Show that the Confederacy could win the war, which could convince European nations to side with the South

44 Lee drew up a plan for his invasion of the North A Confederate officer accidentally left a copy of the battle plans wrapped around 3 cigars at a campsite Union troops passed through and found the plans The captured plans gave McClellan a chance to stop Lee McClellan went on the attack, but moved slowly September 17, 1862 at Antietam Creek, Maryland Lee and McClellan clashed Bloodiest day in American history

45 “Again and again… by charges and counter-charges, this portion of the field was lost and recovered, until the green corn that grew upon it looked as if it had been struck by a storm of bloody hail… From sheer exhaustion, both sides, like battered and bleeding athletes, seemed willing to rest.” - John B. Gordon (Confederate officer) Neither side had gained any ground by nightfall The only difference was that 23,000 men were dead or wounded Lee lost almost ¼ of his army, withdrew to Virginia The cautious McClellan did not follow, missing a chance to finish off the crippled Southern army Lincoln was so frustrated that he fired McClellan

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58 What were some important victories of the North and South?

59 What events, leaders, and strategies shaped the early years of the war?


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