Presentation on theme: "Unit 10, Lecture 3 The Start of the Civil War Mr. Smith 8 th grade U.S. History Tuesday, February 21 st, 2012."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 10, Lecture 3 The Start of the Civil War Mr. Smith 8 th grade U.S. History Tuesday, February 21 st, 2012
First Shots at Fort Sumter Upon secession, southern states forcibly took over forts in their area. Lincoln wondered what to do –Supplying forts = risked war –Ordering troops to leave = giving in to rebels Lincoln said he would supply Fort Sumter Southern forces decided to attack before that shipment made it to them. April 12, 1861 – shots fired, Union surrendered, nobody was killed.
Lincoln Calls Out the Militia 2 days after surrender of Fort Sumter, Lincoln asked Union states for 75,000 militiamen. Numerous citizens rushed to enlist As Southern states seceded, citizens within their borders also rushed to volunteer. When Virginia seceded, General Robert E. Lee resigned from United States Army to join the Confederacy.
Choosing Sides Borders states would be vital – both side knew it –Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri Ultimately, all stayed loyal to the Union despite the fact they were slave states. In the end, 24 states made up the Union and 11 states made up the Confederacy.
Strengths of the Two Sides Union –Advantages 22 million population 85% of nation’s factories 2x as much railroad mileage Almost all naval power and shipyards Great leader – Abraham Lincoln Confederacy –Advantages Better military generals Defensive front –Soldiers defending their home typically have a stronger will to fight
Strategies Confederate Strategy –Originally settled for a defensive position. –When war broke out, withheld cotton from the market, hoping European countries would assist them Prior year – huge cotton surplus, so not successful –Eventually they started offensive strikes aimed at decreasing Union morale Union Strategy –Anaconda Plan – designed to ‘squeeze’ the South’s economy and get them to surrender Naval blockade of the South’s coast line Gain control of the Mississippi River –Splitting the Confederacy in two
Battle of Bull Run July 21 st, 1861 skirmish between Union and Confederate forces Confederate forces caused Union forces to retreat at one point. Victory thrilled the South and shocked the North. North realized the South was underestimated Lincoln sent 90-day militia home and called for 500,000 volunteers to enlist for a 3-year term.