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INTRODUCTION F Multinational managers need to motivate employees with diverse backgrounds F Need to understand –why do people work? –what do people value.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION F Multinational managers need to motivate employees with diverse backgrounds F Need to understand –why do people work? –what do people value."— Presentation transcript:


2 INTRODUCTION F Multinational managers need to motivate employees with diverse backgrounds F Need to understand –why do people work? –what do people value in work? u functions and work centrality

3 WHY DO PEOPLE WORK? F The major functions of work –providing needed income –secure job –contact with other people –feeling of accomplishment F Emphasis differs by country

4 Excerpts from Exhibit 13.1 (next) shows the major functions of work for selected countries


6 WORK CENTRALITY F Work versus other activities F Higher levels of work centrality also match average number of hours worked per week F High levels of work centrality may lead to dedicated workers


8 IMPORTANCE OF WORK F What people value in their current job –generous holidays (#1) –use initiative –good work hours –respected job –responsible job F See Exhibit 13.3 next



11 THE BASIC WORK MOTIVATION PROCESS F Motivation: psychological process that results in goal- directed behavior that satisfy human needs F Needs: a feeling of deficit –work satisfies many needs - e.g., food and shelter

12 F Motivation includes more than satisfying needs F Reactions to behaviors –reinforcement –punishment

13 See Exhibit 13.4 (next) for the basic work motivation process and the national context


15 NATIONAL CONTEXT AND WORK MOTIVATION F Culture and supporting institutions influence –the priority people attach to work –types of needs people satisfy at work –reactions to goal-directed behaviors at work

16 THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION IN THE MULTINATIONAL CONTEXT F Two basic types of motivation theories: –need theories –process theories F Applications to multinational context follow

17 NEED THEORIES F Assume that working can satisfy basic human needs F Four popular need theories: Maslows hierarchy of needs, ERG theory, Motivator-Hygiene theory, and Achievement Motivation theory

18 MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS F Basic needs: physiological, security, affiliation, esteem, and self-actualization –a hierarchy –once one need is satisfied, it no longer motivates

19 ALDERFER'S ERG THEORY F Simplified hierarchy: growth needs, relatedness needs, and existence needs F Frustration motivates behavior to satisfy the need F People seek to satisfy higher and lower level needs

20 MOTIVATOR-HYGIENE THEORY F Job content = motivating factors F Job context = hygiene factors F Only job content factors truly motivating

21 ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY F Three key needs: achievement, affiliation, and power F High achievement people have: needs to win and to set own goals and seek challenging situations

22 NEEDS AND THE NATIONAL CONTEXT F Need priorities differ by country F Even with similar ranks, level of importance differs by country

23 APPLYING NEED THEORIES IN MULTINATIONAL SETTINGS F Identify: –basic functions of work –needs considered most important F Sources of need fulfillment F Know available jobs to satisfy needs

24 PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION F Three major theories: expectancy theory, equity theory, and goal setting theory F More complex than need theories –relate individual beliefs regarding effort, outcomes, and performance

25 EXPECTANCY THEORY F Motivation = Expectancy X Valence X Instrumentality

26 APPLYING EXPECTANCY THEORY IN MULTINATIONAL SETTINGS F Identify valued outcomes of work F Use culturally appropriate ways to convince employees that their efforts will lead to desirable ends

27 EQUITY THEORY F Fairness in the input/output equation F Relative rewards vis-a-vis inputs leads to: –reduced or increased contribution to organization

28 APPLYING EQUITY THEORY IN MULTINATIONAL SETTINGS F Equity norms vary F Principles of allocating rewards: –contributions - prevail in individualistic cultures –equality - more likely in collectivist cultures –need - more likely in collectivist cultures

29 GOAL SETTING THEORY F Premise: People want to achieve goals F Effective Goals: –clear, specific, and difficult but achievable

30 F For Goals setting to work, managers must: –increase employee acceptance of goals –provide incentives to achieve goals –give feedback on goal attainment Goal setting theory, continued

31 APPLYING GOAL SETTING THEORY IN MULTINATIONAL SETTINGS F Goal setting works to some degree regardless of location F Cultural expectations vary - managers must know: –is it better to set goals for groups or for individuals?


33 REINFORCEMENT THEORY F Behavior is a function of its consequences F Pleasurable consequence = behavior continues F Unpleasant consequence = behavior stops F Reinforcement, extinction, and punishment

34 APPLYING REINFORCEMENT THEORY IN MULTINATIONAL SETTINGS F Positive reinforcement F Identify appropriate rewards as reinforcers F National context defines acceptable/legitimate rewards

35 MOTIVATION AND JOB DESIGN: U.S. AND EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVES F Focus on nature of jobs F Psychological effects of tasks on workers



38 A EUROPEAN APPROACH: SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS F Technology and the social needs of workers F The autonomous work group F Team tasks the focus job enrichment

39 CHOOSING JOB ENRICHMENT TECHNIQUES IN MULTINATIONAL SETTINGS F Distinction between individualistic and collectivist cultures should determine the choice of job-enrichment –U.S. individual approach –European group approach

40 PROBLMES OF TEAM WORK IN INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURES F Social loafing F No responsibility for group outcomes F Individual work/interests have priority over group's

41 CONCLUSIONS F Motivating the multinational workforce: a constant challenge F Motivation theories not culture free F Application requires knowledge of national context

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