4 Classification of Waste On the basis of Physical StateSolid WasteLiquid WasteGaseous WasteAccording to Original UseFood WastePackaging Waste etc.
5 Material Physical Properties Sources Safety Level Glass Paper etc. CompostableCombustableRecyclableSourcesDomesticCommercialIndustrialSafety LevelHazardousNonhazardousThe classification on the basis of source is widely adopted and is used.
6 Sources of Solid Wastes Agricultural Waste : Waste arising from agricultural practice.Mining Waste: Mainly inert material from mineral extracting industries.Energy Production Waste: Waste from energy production units including ash from coal burning.Industrial Waste: Wastes generated by various industries.
7 Dredging Waste: Organic and mineral wastes from dredging operations. Construction and Demolition Waste: Bricks, brick bats, concrete, asphaltic material, pipes etc.Treatment Plant Waste: Solids from grit chambers, sedimentation tank, sludge digesters of waste water treatment plant.Residential Waste: Garbage including food waste, paper, crockery and ashes from fires, furniture.
8 Commercial Waste: Similar to residential wastes produced from offices, shops, restaurants etc. Institutional Waste: Similar to residential wastes plus hazardous, explosive, pathological and other wastes which are institution specific (hospital, research institute etc.)
9 Municipal Solid Wastes What is Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ?The MSW refers to all wastes collected by local authority or municipality and is the most diverse category of waste.MSW comprises all wastes except agricultural, mining, energy production and dredging wastes.
10 Quantity of solid waste generated (million tons per year) Waste QuantitiesQuantity of solid waste generated (million tons per year)CountryAgriculturalMiningC&DSewage sludgeEnergy ProductionIndustryMSWUK26024035271362110USA-140031.58.463430133INDIA7.26024
11 Quantities of MSW generated in some Indian Cities City Tons/day Mumbai5000Kolkatta3500Delhi6000Chennai
12 Quantities of MSW generated in different countries CountryKg/person/dayIndia0.25 to0.33Srilanka0.40Singapore0.85UK0.95 to 1.0Japan1.12USA1.25 to 2.25
13 Projected Municipal, Energy and Mine Waste Generation in India (Million Tons/year) MSWEnergy Waste(ash)Mine waste1980-43019902446830200039921220201056113
14 Major Constituents of MSW Generated in UK, USA and India Paper35405Plastic1181Metals8.5Glass970.5Inert Material-39Compostable Matter192537.5Others1811.516
15 Characteristics of Solid Waste Solid waste generated by a society may be inert,biologically active or chemically active.Agricultural waste is primarily biologically active. It is generated in large quantities and remains uniformly dispersed on land surface area.Mining waste is primarily inert and is also generated in large volumes. However it accumulates continuously at mining sites.
16 Industrial wastes are generated in industrial area and are highly industry specific. They usually comprise of chemicals and allied products, rubber, plastic, metals, petroleum and coal products etc.MSW is generated at densely populated urban centres and are most heterogenous. The predominant constituents of MSW are paper, food, wastes, plastics, glass , metals and inert material. In developing country like india, 40% waste is compostable, 40% inert material where as in developed countries, paper forms a major part of MSW followed by compostable matter. The inert material content is low.
17 Management of Solid waste There are two fundamental objectives of solid waste management.To minimize the waste.To manage the waste still produced.
18 Various Activities Associated With Solid Waste Waste GenerationProcessing at SourceCollectionProcessing at a Central FacilityTransportation and final disposal on land
19 For all types of waste generated, an integrated solid waste managementfollow the following options in order ofHierarchy.Waste Reduction at SourceResource Recovery Through Separation and RecyclingResource Recovery Through Waste ProcessingWaste TransformationWaste Disposal on Land
20 Waste Reduction at Source Source reduction is the most effective way to minimize waste.Waste reduction may occur through proper design, manufacture and packing of products with minimum toxicity, minimum volume of material and longer useful life.
21 Resource Recovery Through Separation and Recycling Recycling involvesSeparation of waste materialsPreparation of separated fractions for reuseReprocessing and remanufacturingReuse of prepared material
22 Materials in MSW which can be separated and recycled PaperGlassPlasticFerrous metalsAluminium cansRecycling is a good process as it reduces the volume of waste to be disposed off on land.
23 Resource Recovery Through Waste Processing Waste processing involves the physical, chemical or biological alterations of wastes to recover products for reuse. The various techniques used for this areBiological TreatmentCompostingAnaerobic digestion/BiogasificationThermal TreatmentIncinerationRefuse Derived Fuel BurningPhysical TreatmentMaking building blocks/bricks from inert wasteChemical TreatmentTo recover compounds such as glucose, synthetic oil and cellulose acetate etc.
24 Waste TransformationAfter recovery of various resources from a waste, the residual material may be subjected to a variety of processes to reduce the volume of waste requiring disposal. Treatment process may involveShreddingSize separation (screening)Volume Reduction by thermal treatment or compactionEncapsulation (to reduce toxicity)These processes help in reducing the final land areas required for waste disposal
25 Waste Disposal on LandDespite all efforts to minimize waste, the following requirement for storage/disposal of the following types of waste will continue to remain.The solid waste that cannot be recycled.The residual waste after all types of processing has been undertaken.
26 Available Options Disposal on the earth’s surface. Disposal deep below the earth’s surface.Disposal at the Ocean bottom.Among all the above three options, Option 1 is the least desirable but it will remain the best practical option for the foreseeable future.
28 Changes Occurring in a Waste Dump Biological ChangesDuring the aerobic decomposition, carbondioxide is the principal gas produced.Once the available oxygen has been consumed, the decomposition becomes anaerobic and the organic matter is converted toCarbondioxideMethaneTrace amounts of ammoniaHydrogen sulfideMany other chemical reactions are also biologically initiated therefore it is difficult to define the condition that will exist in any waste dump at any stated time.
29 Chemical ChangesThe chemical reactions that occurs in a waste dump areDissolutionSuspension of waste materialsBiological conversion products in the liquid percolating through the wasteEvaporation and vaporization of chemical compoundsSorption of volatile and semi volatile organic compounds into the waste materialDecomposition of organic compoundsOxidation-reduction reactions affecting metals and the solubility of metal salts.The dissolution of biological conversion into the leachate is of special importance because these materials can be transported out of the waste dump with the leachate.
30 Physical Changes The important physical changes in waste dumps are Lateral movement of gases in the wasteEmission of gases to the surrounding environmentMovement of leachate within the waste and into underlying soilsSettlement caused by consolidation and decomposition of the waste.
34 The components of the engineered landfill are Liner systemLeachate collection and treatment facilityGas collection and treatment facilityFinal cover systemSurface water drainage systemAn environmental monitoring systemA closure and post closure plan
35 Types of Landfills Landfills can be classified as Conventional MSW landfills.Landfills for processed and shredded solid wastes.Monofills for individual waste constituents (used for industrial waste).Other types of Landfills (For gas generation to generate electricity).
36 Implications of Disposal Above, On and Below Ground Surface Above Ground LandfillsAdvantageDrainage of leachate is by gravity.Thickness of unsaturated zone belowthe landfill is large.Landfill is conspicuous and thus cannotbe ignored.Poor surface drainage due tosettlement of final landfill surface canbe avoided.Inspection of the entire facility i.e. finalcover, leachate collection system andgas collection system is easier.DisadvantageThey alter the land usepattern of the area.They have more surface areaexposed to elements of naturesuch as wind, rain and requiresignificant erosion controlmeasures.
37 On and Just Below Ground Surafce AdvantageMore waste can be stored per unit land area in comparison to above ground landfills.Efficient use can be made of the excavated material but using it as landfill cover.Productive use of the flat landfill surface can be made on completion of landfill.Long term slope stability and erosion control requirements are not very critical in such landfills.DisadvantageLeachate collection throughregular pumping.Require good surface waterdrainage measures iflocated in low lying areasand are closer to groundwater table than aboveground landfills.
38 Landfills Deep Beneath the Earth’s Surafce Wastes can also be dumped in underground openings, tunnels or caverns, however the cost of construction in such cases is extremely high. If the disposal is in soil where water table is high, the waste would always be surrounded by ground water and, irrespective of the multiple barriers used for waste isolation, the potential of ground water contamination would always be high. On the other hand,if waste is disposed in strong competent rock, the very low permeability of the rock mass coupled with multiple barriers layers ensures long term containment of the waste. Such disposal techniques are adopted for extremely hazardous waste wher cost considerations are out weighed by the need for fail proof environment protection measures. Waste disposal deep beneath the ground surface has the least impact on the land use pattern.
39 Characterisation of Waste Liquid Waste CharacterisationThe basic characterisation parameters areSource Information for the individual pointsWaste componentsRate of discharge during production runPeriodic discharges due to batch operationsDuration and frequency of production runSusceptibility to emerging discharges or spills
40 Chemical Composition Biological Effects Organic and inorganic components by compounds or classesCOD, Total organic carbon, BODSpecific problem ions(As, Bo, Cd, Cr etc.)Specific problem organic e.g. phenol, certain pesticides, benzidine etc.Total dissolved saltspH, acidity, alkanityNitrogen, PhosphorousOils and greasesOxidizing or reducing agentsSurfactantsChlorine demandBiological EffectsBiochemical oxygen demandToxicityPathogenic bacteria
41 Flow data for total discharge Physical PropertiesTemperature range and distributionInsoluble componentsColourOdourFoamabilityCorrosivenessRadioactivityFlow data for total dischargeAvg. daily flow rateDuration and level of minimum flow rateMaximum rate of change of flow rateMeaningful characterisation information can only be obtained through proper analysis of representative samples or through the use of online water quality monitoring instrumentation.
42 Solid waste Characterisation Physical and chemical composition of solid wastes vary depending on sources and types of solid wastes. The nature of the deposited waste in a landfill will affect gas and leachate production and composition by virtue of relative proportions of degradable and non-degradable components, the moisture content and the specific nature of the bio-degradable element. The waste composition will effect both gases and the trace components.
43 The important parameters to characterise the waste are Waste compositionMoisture contentWaste particle sizeWaste densityTemperature and pHThese parameters affect the extent and rate of degration of waste. The typical approximate analysis for MSW are show below.Moisture %Volatile matter %Fixed carbon %Glass, metal and ash %
44 Geotechnical Properties of Solid Wastes Unit Weight :- Insitu density– 1.2 to 2.1 t/m3 with extremes of 0.94 t/m3 for poor compaction and 2.8 t/m3 for best compaction.Permeability :- The reported range of permeability of refuse is 10-1 to 10-5 cm/sec.Strength parameters :- Friction Angle to 350Cohesion 1to 2.5 t/m2Compressibility :- For one dimensional consolidation test on waste of density 600 kg/m3, the compression index is 0.55 and secondary compression coefficient varying from to for a municipal dump in Madras City.
45 Hazardous Waste Characterisation The waste which canContribute to increase in mortalityCan cause irreversible illnessCan pose potential hazard to human healthis called hazardous waste.Hazardous waste can be classified asRadioactive substancesChemicalsBiological WastesFlammable wasteExplosives
46 Characteristics of Hazardous Waste There are four characteristics which make the waste hazardous categoryIgnitabilityCorrosivity if pH 2 or ≥ 12.5Reactivity:- A waste exhibits the characteristics of reactivity if a representative sample of the waste has the following propertiesReacts violently with waterForms explosive mixture with waterWhen mixed with water, generates toxic gases, fumes or vapoursReacts at a standard temperature or pressure
47 Max. Concentration (mg/l) Toxicity:- The limits for a waste to be toxic for different contaminants are shown in the table.If the concentration of a particular constituent into the ground water as a result of improper management exceeds the above limits, then it is called as toxic.ContaminantMax. Concentration (mg/l)Arsenic5.0Barium100.0Benzene0.5Cadmium1.0LeadMercury0.2Vinyl chloride
48 Planning and Design Consideration The landfill planning and design process consists ofPlanningMain DesignConstruction operation Design
49 Planning PhaseThe planning phase includesSite SelectionSite InvestigationLandfill layout and sectionEvaluation of landfill capacityPhased Operation
50 Main Design PhaseThe main design phase includesDesign of liner, leachate collection and TreatmentGas Collection and TreatmentCover SystemLandfill StabilitySurface Water DrainageEnvironmental Monitoring
51 Construction Operation Design Process Site DevelopmentConstruction ScheduleMaterial and Equipment RequirementEnviornmental Control During OperationClosure and Post Closure Programmes
52 Waste Acceptance Authorised waste only. No liquid waste or slurry type wasteNo recyclable wasteNo compostable wasteNo waste from which energy recovery is feasible through thermal/ biological process.Incompatible wastes in separate landfill unitsNo non-hazardous or municipal waste in HW landfills and no hazardous waste in MSW landfillsExtremely hazardous wastes should be stabilised before land filling or disposed in specially designed waste disposal units.52
53 Site SelectionSite for development of landfill to be located preferably in areas havinglow population densitylow alternate land use valuelow GW contamination potentialhaving clay content in the sub-soil
54 Receptor Related Attributes Factors to be Considered in Site SelectionReceptor Related AttributesPopulation with in 500 mDistance to nearest drinking wellUse of site by nearby residentsDistance to nearest office buildingLand useCritical Environment
55 Pathway Related Attributes Distance to nearest surface waterDepth to ground waterType of contaminationPrecipitationSoil permeabilityBed Rock PermeabilityDepth to bed rockSusceptability to erosion and runoffClimatic factors relating to air pollutionSusceptibility to seismic activity
56 Waste Related Attributes ToxicityRadioactivityIgnitabilityReactivityCorrosivitySolubilityVolatility
57 Waste Management Related Attributes Physical stateWaste quantityWaste compatibilityUse of linersGas TreatmentLeachate TreatmentSite securitySafety measures
58 Locational Criteria Lake/pond >200 m River >100 m (for lined landfills)Lake/pond >200 mRiver >100 mEmbankment protective embankmentHighway > 500 mHabitation > 500 mPublic park > 500 mCritical habitat NoWetland NoCoastal regulation zone NoAirport > 3000 m to 20kmWater supply well > 500 mGround water table level m below base of land fillOthers local needs
60 Site investigation criteria Sub Soil Investigation: type of soil, depth of GWT and bedrock, permeability of various strata, strength parameters, extent of availability of liner materialsGround Water / Hydro geological Investigation: Depth of GWT, GW flow direction, Baseline GW quality parametersTopographical Investigation: To compute the earth work quantities preciselyHydrological Investigation: To estimate the quantities of runoff for appropriate design of drainage facilitiesGeological Investigation and Seismic Investigation: to delineate the bedrock profile beneath the landfill base
61 Landfill LayoutA landfill site will comprise of the area in which the waste will be filled as well as additional area for support facilities. With in the area to be filled, work may proceed in phases with only a part of the area under active operation.
62 Landfill SectionLandfills may have different types of sections depending on the topography of the area, the depth of ground water table and availability of suitable daily cover material. The landfill may take the following formsAbove ground landfills are used in those areas where GWT is high.
63 Below ground landfill are suitable for areas where adequate cover material is available and GWT is not near the surface.Above and below ground landfill Slope landfill Valley landfills
64 Trenches of landfills vary from 100 to 300 m in length1 to 3 m in depth5 to 15 m in width with side slopes of 2:1
65 Planning of Phased Operation Progressive use of the landfill area such that at any given instant of time a part of the site may have a final cover, a part being actively filled, a part being prepared to receive waste and a part in an undisturbed state.Progressive excavation of on-site fill materials and minimization of double handling.Minimizes the area required for landfill operations and concentrates waste disposal activities within prepared areas.Reduces leachate generation by keeping areas receiving waste to a minimum.Enables progressive installation of leachate and gas control.Allows clean surface water runoff to be collected separately.
66 Phase:- It is the sub area of the landfill Phase:- It is the sub area of the landfill. A phase consists of cells, lifts, daily cover, intermediate cover, liner and leachate collection facility, gas control facility and final cover over the sub-area. Each phase is typically designed for a period of 12 to 18 months.Cell:- It is used to describe the volume of material placed in a landfill during one operating period usually one day.
67 Daily cover:- It consists of 15 to 30 cm of native soil that is applied to the working faces. The purpose of this cover isTo control the blowing of waste materialsTo prevent rats, flies and other disease vectors from entering or exiting the landfillTo control the entry of water into the landfill during operationLift:- It is a complete layer of cells over the active area of the landfill. Typically each landfill phase is comprised of a series of lifts. Intermediate covers are placed at the end of each phase; these are thicker than daily covers and remain exposed till the next phase is placed over it.Bench:- A bench is a terrace which is used when the height of the landfill exceeds 15 to 20 m. The final left includes the cover layer.
68 Landfill Capacity Factors: Quantity of waste and its compacted density Volume of wasteVolume occupied by liner and coverVolume reduction due to settlementBiodegradable waste/municipal waste may have density of 0.6 to 1.2t/cumInorganic waste may have density of 1.2 to 1.6 t/cumInorganic compacted waste:-5% in few yearsMunicipal biodegradable waste:-20% in 30 years6868
69 (Volume/height/area) Estimation of Landfill Capacity(Volume/height/area)Waste generation rate = W tons per yearActive life of landfill = n yearsTotal waste in n years (T) = W x n tonsVolume of waste(V) = T/density cumVolume for daily cover = 0.1 VVolume for liner and final cover = 0.2V to 0.3VTotal volume(Landfill capacity) = V+0.1V+0.25VTotal area available = A sqmArea for infrastructure = 0.15 A to 0.25A= 0.2 AArea of land filling = A-0.2A=0.8AHeight (+depth) of landfill = 1.35V/0.8A69
70 Landfill Liner, Leachate Collection and Treatment Liner system is provided to prevent migration of leachate generated inside a landfill from reaching the soil and ground water beneath the landfill. The function of leachate collection facility is toRemove leachate contained with in the landfill by the liner system for treatment and disposal.Control and minimize leachate heads with in the landfill.Avoid damage to the liner system.Landfill liner comprise ofCompacted claysGeomembranesGeosynthetic clay linerCombinations
71 On a basis of review of liner systems adopted in different countries, it is recommended that for all MSW landfills the following single composite liner system be adopted as the minimum requirement:A leachate drainage layer 30 cm thick made of granular soil having permeability (K) greater than 10-2 cm/sec.A protection layer (of silty soil) 20 cm to 30 cm thick.A geomembrane of thickness 1.5 mm or more.A compacted clay barrier or amended soil barrier of 1 m thickness having permeability (K) of less than 10-7 cm/sec.The liner system adopted at any landfill must satisfy the minimum requirements published by regulatory agencies (MOEF/ CPCB).
72 The design steps for the leachate collection system are: Leachate collection systems consist of a leachate drainage network and leachate removal facility. Drainage networks comprise of coarse grained soils, perforated pipes or geotextile drainage layers. Drainage removal facility consists of a system of sumps, wells and pumps.The design steps for the leachate collection system are:finalization of layout pipe network and sumps in conjunction with drainage layer slopes of 2%estimation of pipe diameter and spacing on the basis of estimated leachate quantity and maximum permissible leachate headestimating the size of sumps and pumpdesign of wells/side slopes risers for leachate removal; anddesign of a holding tank.It is recommended that the detailed methodology given in Sharma and Lewis (1994) be adopted.
73 The alternatives to be considered for leachate management are: Discharge to lined drainsDischarge to waste water treatment systemRecirculationEvaporation of leachateTreatment of leachate
74 Gas Collection and Treatment The uncontrolled release of landfill gas, methane contributes to the green house effect. Landfill gas can migrate laterally and potentially cause explosions. Landfills are therefore provided with gas collection and processing facilities. The rate of gas production varies depending on the operating procedure. The decision to use horizontal or vertical gas recovery wells depends on the design and capacity of the landfill. The decision of flare or to recover energy from the landfill gas is determined by the capacity of the landfill site and the opportunity to sell power produced from the conversion of landfill gas to energy.Landfill gas generation rates vary over a wide range. Typically generation rates vary from 1 to 8 lit/kg/year. Bhide (1993) reported landfill gas production rates of 6-9 cum/hour from the landfill sites in India having an area of 8 ha and depth of 5 to 8 m.
75 Gas outputs of 10 to 20 cum per hour (corresponding to 50 to 100 KW of energy) have been recorded in wells of 15 to 20 cm diameter drilled 10 m into waste at spacing of 30 to 70 m. For 1 MW output from a landfill site, 15 to 20 such wells are required. The gas management strategies should follow one of the following three plans:Controlled passive ventingUncontrolled releaseControlled collection and treatment/reuse
76 Cover SystemLandfill cover is usually consists of several layers. The objective of final cover system is to improve surface drainage, minimize infiltration and support vegetation. The use of a geo membrane liner as a barrier layer is favoured by most landfill designers to limit the entry of surface water and to control the release of landfill gases. To ensure the rapid removal of rainfall from the final cover of the landfill and to avoid the formation of puddles, the final cover should have a slope of about 3 to 5%. The cover system adopted at any landfill must satisfy the minimum requirements published by regulatory agencies (MOEF/ CPCB).
77 Surface Water Drainage Surface water drainage is required to ensure that Rainwater runoff does not drain into the waste from surrounding area.Rainfall does not generate excessive leachate.Contaminated surface runoff from the operational landfill area does not enter water courses.Slopes on the landfill are protected from infiltration and erosion.Final cover soils are not subject to ponding or water logging.
78 Stability AspectsThe stability of a landfill should be checked for the following cases:Stability of excavated slopesStability of liner system along excavated slopesStability of temporary waste slopes constructed to their full height (usually at the end of a phase)Stability of slopes of above -ground portion of completed landfillsStability of cover systems in above -ground landfills.
79 The stability analysis should be conducted using the following soil mechanics methods depending upon the shape of the failure surface:failure surface parallel to slopewedge method of analysismethod of slices for circular failure surfacespecial methods for stability of anchored geomembranes along slopes
80 In preliminary design of a landfill section, the following slopes may be adopted: Excavated soil slopes (2.5H:1V)Temporary waste slopes (3H:1V)Final cover slopes (4H:1V)Slopes can be made steeper, if found stable by stability analysis results.Acceptable factors of safety may be taken as 1.3 for temporary slopes and 1.5 for permanent slopes.In earthquake prone areas, the stability of all landfill slopes will be conducted taking into account seismic coefficients as recommended by BIS codes.
81 Environmental Monitoring Monitoring systems are required at the landfill site forGases and liquids in the vadose zoneChecking the ground water quality both upstream and downstream of the landfill site in the vadose zoneFor air quality on the surface and at the boundary of the landfill.
82 The number of monitoring stations will depend on the size of the landfill and the requirements of the local air and water pollution control agencies. A typical monitoring systemEvaluates leachate head with in the landfillsLeakage beneath the landfillPore gas and pore fluid quality in the vadose zoneAir quality in gas vents and gas treatment facilityWater quality in ground water monitoring wellsLeachate quality in leachate collection tanks and water quality in storm water drains.
83 Construction Operation Design Site developmentThe following site infrastructure should be provided:Site Entrance and FencingAdministrative and Site Control OfficesAccess RoadsWaste Inspection and Sampling FacilityEquipment Workshops and GaragesSigns and DirectionsWater SupplyLightingVehicle Cleaning FacilityFire Fighting Equipment.
84 Site entrance infrastructure should include: A permanent, wide, entrance road with separate entry and exit lanes and gates.Sufficient length/parking space inside the entrance gate till the weighbridge to prevent queuing of vehicles outside the entrance gate and on to the highway. A minimum road length of 50 m inside the entry gate is desirableA properly landscaped entrance area with a green belt of 20 m containing tree plantation for good visual impactProper direction signs and lighting at the entrance gateA perimeter fencing of at least 2m height all around the landfill site with lockable gates to prevent unauthorised accessFull time security guard at the site.
85 Construction schedule The construction schedule shall plan for the followingThe arrival sequence and time required for vehicles bringing waste to the landfill siteClimate and wind effectTraffic on the access roadsImpact on adjoining areas.
86 Material and equipment requirement A comprehensive material requirement plan for the construction of various phases of the proposed landfill shall be prepared in advance before the commencement of the construction work. Materials may be required forGranular material for ground water drainage, leachate drainage blanket, gas venting and collectionClay, sand, synthetic membrane for the liner system and final cover systemSuitable fill for internal and external bundsBase course and sub base course materials for haul roadsSuitable material during site operations for daily coverSuitable soils or granular or screened material for pipe work zone, drainage and protection layers above the barrier layerSub soil and top soil for restoration layers
87 The type, size and number of equipment required will depend on the size of the landfill and maneuverability in restricted spaces. Typically the following equipments are required at the landfill siteFor excavating, spreading and leveling operations crawler tractors/dozers are requiredCompactors/rollers for compactingWheeled loader-back hoes for excavating, trenching, loading and short hauling
88 Control of environment during landfilling operation Environmental monitoring is carried out in four zonesOn and within the landfillsIn the unsaturated subsurface zone beneath and around the landfillIn the ground water zone beneath and around the landfillIn the atmosphere/local air above and around the landfilland the instruments required to be used for monitoring are GW samplers, leachate samplers, lysimeters, free drainage samplers, surface water samplers, downhole water quality sensors, landfill gas monitors, active and passive samplers for ambient air quality.
89 Environmental control during operation is carried out to minimize the impact of the landfilling operation on the nearby residents. This can be done byProviding screens in the active areasPresence of birds at the landfill site is nuisance and it can be serious problem if the landfill is being constructed near the airport. This problem can be over come byUse of noise makersUse of over head wiresUse of recording of the sounds made by birds
90 Wind-blown paper, plastics etc can be a problem at the landfill site Wind-blown paper, plastics etc can be a problem at the landfill site. This can be overcome byPortable screens near the operating facesDaily removing the accumulated materials on the screenDust control can be achieved by spraying waterThe problems of flies, pests, mosquitoes and rodents can be controlled by placing daily cover and by eliminating stagnant water.
91 Closure and post closure plan A closure and post closure plan shall be made to ensure that a landfill will be maintained for years in the future.A closure plan includesLandfill cover and landscaping of the completed site.Long term plans for the control of runoff, erosion, gas and leachate collection & treatment.Post closure plan includesRoutine inspection of completed landfill.Maintenance of surface water diversion facilities, landfill surface grades, the condition of liners.Maintenance of landfill gas and leachate collection equipment.Long term environmental monitoring plan so that no contaminants is released from the landfill site.
92 ConclusionsThe present lecture has high lighted the planning and design considerations for the MSW landfills. By adopting these guidelines at a new landfill site will promote effectiveness and efficiency of municipal solid waste management, thereby reducing the over-all cost of planning, design, operations and maintenance of landfill facilities while ensuring the protection of public health and the environment.
93 Happy and Prosperous New Year ThanksandWish You AllHappy and Prosperous New Year2012