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Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Wastes. Overview of Chapter 24  Solid Waste  Waste Prevention  Reducing the Amount of Waste  Reusing Products  Recycling.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Wastes. Overview of Chapter 24  Solid Waste  Waste Prevention  Reducing the Amount of Waste  Reusing Products  Recycling."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Wastes

2 Overview of Chapter 24  Solid Waste  Waste Prevention  Reducing the Amount of Waste  Reusing Products  Recycling Materials  Hazardous Waste  Types of Hazardous Waste  Management of Hazardous Waste

3 Solid Waste  US generates more solid waste per capita than any other country  2.1 kg per person per day

4 Types of Solid Waste  Municipal solid waste  Solid material discarded by homes, office buildings, retail stores, schools, etc.  Relatively small portion of solid waste produced  Non-municipal solid waste  Solid waste generated by industry, agriculture, and mining

5 Composition of Municipal Solid Waste

6 Disposal of Solid Waste  Three methods  Sanitary Landfills  Incineration  Recycling

7 Sanitary Landfill

8  Compacting and burying waste under a shallow layer of soil  Most common method of disposal  Problems  Methane gas production by microorganisms  Contamination of surface water & ground water by leachate  Not a long-term remedy  Few new facilities being opened  Closing a full landfill is very expensive

9  Special Problem: Tires  Made from materials that cannot be recycled  Can be incinerated or shredded Sanitary Landfill  Special Problem: Plastic  Much of plastic is from packaging  Chemically stable and do not readily break down and decompose

10 Incineration  Volume of solid waste reduced by 90%  Produces heat that can make steam to generate electricity  Produce less carbon emissions than fossil fuel power plants  Byproduct  Bottom ash  Fly ash

11 Incineration  Types of Incinerators  Mass burn (below)  Modular  Refuse-derived

12 Composting  Municipal Solid Waste Composting  Includes: Food scraps, Sewage sludge, Agricultural manure, Yard waste  Reduces yard waste in landfills  Can be sold or distributed to community

13 Waste Prevention  Three Goals  (1) Reduce the amount of waste  (2) Reuse products  (3) Recycle materials

14 Reducing Waste  Purchase products with less packaging

15 Reducing Waste  Source reduction  Products designed and manufactured to decrease the volume of solid waste  Pollution Prevention Act (1990)  Dematerialization  Progressive decrease in the size and weight of a product as a result of technological improvements

16 Reusing Products  Refilling glass beverage bottles  Heavier glass that costs more  Japan recycles almost all bottles  Reused 20 times

17 Recycling Materials  Every ton of recycled paper saves:  17 trees  7000 gallons of water  4100 kwatt-hrs of energy  3 cubic yards of landfill space  Recycle  Glass bottles, newspapers, steel cans, plastic bottles, cardboard, office paper

18 Recycling  Recycling Paper  US recycles 50%  Many developed countries are higher  Recycling Glass  US recycles 25%  Costs less than new glass (right)

19 Recycling  Recycling Aluminum  Making new can from recycled one costs far less than making a brand new one  49% of aluminum was recycled in 2007  Recycling Metals other than Aluminum  Lead, gold, iron, steel, silver and zinc  Metallic composition is often unknown  Makes recycling difficult

20 Recycling  Recycling Plastic  12% of all plastic was recycled in 2007  Less expensive to make from raw materials  37% of PET was recycled in 2007  Mostly water and soda bottles

21 Recycling  Recycling Tires  Few products are made from old tires  Playground equipment  Trashcans  Garden hose  Carpet  Roofing materials  36% of tires are currently recycled to make other products

22 Integrated Waste Management

23 Love Canal Toxic Waste Site Hazardous Waste  Any discarded chemical that threatens human health or the environment  Reactive, corrosive, explosive or toxic chemicals  Types of Hazardous Waste  Dioxins  PCBs  Radioactive waste

24 Hazardous Waste

25 Case-In-Point Hanford Nuclear Reservation

26 Management of Hazardous Waste  Chemical accidents  National Response Center notified  Typically involves oil, gasoline or other petroleum spill  Current Management Policies  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976, 1984)  Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980)  Commonly known as Superfund

27 Superfund Program  Cleaning up existing hazardous waste:  400,000 waste sites  Leaking chemical storage tanks and drums (right)  Pesticides dumps  Piles of mining wastes  Must be cleaned up

28 Management of Hazardous Waste  Superfund National Priorities List  2009: 1,264 sites on the list  States with the greatest number of sites  New Jersey (114)  California (94)  Pennsylvania (94)  New York (85)  Michigan (65)

29 Management of Hazardous Waste  Biological Treatment of Hazardous Chemicals  Bioremediation - use of bacteria and other microorganisms to break down hazardous waste into relatively harmless products  Time consuming  Phytoremediation - use of plants to absorb and accumulate hazardous materials in the soil  Ex: Indian mustard removed heavy metals

30 Examples of Phytoremediation

31 Management of Hazardous Waste  (1) Source reduction  (2) Conversion to less hazardous materials  (3) Long-term storage

32 Hazardous Waste Landfill


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