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Part III Solid Waste Engineering 12 Evolution of Solid Waste Management 12.1 Solid Waste—a Consequence of Life Problems with the disposal of wastes can.

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Presentation on theme: "Part III Solid Waste Engineering 12 Evolution of Solid Waste Management 12.1 Solid Waste—a Consequence of Life Problems with the disposal of wastes can."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part III Solid Waste Engineering 12 Evolution of Solid Waste Management 12.1 Solid Waste—a Consequence of Life Problems with the disposal of wastes can be traced from the time when humans first began to congregate in tribes, villages, and communities and the accumulation of wastes became a consequence of life. Problems with the disposal of wastes can be traced from the time when humans first began to congregate in tribes, villages, and communities and the accumulation of wastes became a consequence of life.

2 12.2 Waste Generation In a Technological Society 12.2 Waste Generation In a Technological Society Materials Flow and Waste Generation The Effects of Technological Advances Of particular significance are the increasing use of plastics and the use of frozen foods, which reduce the quantities of food wastes in the home but increase the quantities at agricultural processing plants. Of particular significance are the increasing use of plastics and the use of frozen foods, which reduce the quantities of food wastes in the home but increase the quantities at agricultural processing plants.

3 Thus, the engineers responsible for the design of solid waste facilities must be aware of trends, even though they cannot, of course, predict all the changes in technology that will affect the characteristics of solid wastes. Thus, the engineers responsible for the design of solid waste facilities must be aware of trends, even though they cannot, of course, predict all the changes in technology that will affect the characteristics of solid wastes. But important questions arise: Which elements of society generate the greatest quantities of solid waste and what is the nature of these wastes? How can the quantities be minimized? What is the role of resource recovery? Can disposal and recovery technology keep up with consumer product technology? But important questions arise: Which elements of society generate the greatest quantities of solid waste and what is the nature of these wastes? How can the quantities be minimized? What is the role of resource recovery? Can disposal and recovery technology keep up with consumer product technology?

4 12.3 The Development of Solid Waste Management Solid waste management may be defined as the discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing, and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics, and other environmental considerations, and that is also responsive to public attitudes. Solid waste management may be defined as the discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing, and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics, and other environmental considerations, and that is also responsive to public attitudes.

5 In its scope, solid waste management includes all administrative, financial, legal, planning, and engineering functions involved in solutions to all problems of solid wastes. The solutions may involve complex interdisciplinary relationships among such fields as political science, city and regional planning, geography, economics, public health, sociology, demography, communications, and conservation, as well as engineering and materials science. In its scope, solid waste management includes all administrative, financial, legal, planning, and engineering functions involved in solutions to all problems of solid wastes. The solutions may involve complex interdisciplinary relationships among such fields as political science, city and regional planning, geography, economics, public health, sociology, demography, communications, and conservation, as well as engineering and materials science.

6 Functional Elements of a Waste Management System Functional Elements of a Waste Management System The activities associated with the management of solid wastes, from the point of generation to final disposal have been grouped into the six functional elements: (1) waste generation; (2) waste handling and separation, storage, and processing at the source; (3) collection; (4) separation and processing and transformation of solid wastes; (5) transfer and transport; and (6) disposal. The activities associated with the management of solid wastes, from the point of generation to final disposal have been grouped into the six functional elements: (1) waste generation; (2) waste handling and separation, storage, and processing at the source; (3) collection; (4) separation and processing and transformation of solid wastes; (5) transfer and transport; and (6) disposal.

7 Waste Generation Waste Generation Waste Handling and Separation, Storage, and Processing at the Source Waste Handling and Separation, Storage, and Processing at the Source Collection Collection Separation, Processing, and Separation, Processing, and Transformation of Solid Waste. Transformation of Solid Waste. Transfer and Transport Transfer and Transport Disposal Disposal

8 12.4 Integrated Solid Water Management Hierarchy of Integrated Solid Waste management Source Reduction Recycling Waste Transformation Landfilling Planning for Integrated Waste Management Proper Mix of Alternatives and Technologies Flexibility in Meeting Future Changes Monitoring and Evaluation

9 12.5 Operation of Solid Waste Management Systems Management Issues Management Issues Setting Workable but Protective Regulatory Standards. Setting Workable but Protective Regulatory Standards. Improving Scientific Methods for Interpretation of Data Improving Scientific Methods for Interpretation of Data Identification of Hazardous and Toxic Consumer Products Requiring Special Waste Management Units Identification of Hazardous and Toxic Consumer Products Requiring Special Waste Management Units Paying for Improved Waste Management Units. Paying for Improved Waste Management Units. Designating Land Disposal Units at or near Large Urban Centers Designating Land Disposal Units at or near Large Urban Centers

10 Establishing and Maintaining More Qualified Managers to Develop and Operate Waste Management Units Establishing and Maintaining More Qualified Managers to Develop and Operate Waste Management Units Future Challenges and Opportunities Future Challenges and Opportunities Changing Consumption Habits in Society Changing Consumption Habits in Society Reducing the Volume of Waste at the Source Reducing the Volume of Waste at the Source Making Landfills Safer Making Landfills Safer Development of New Technologies Development of New Technologies

11 13 Sources, Types, and Composition of Municipal Solid Wastes 13-1 Sources of Solid Wastes (1) residential, (1) residential, (2) commercial, (2) commercial, (3) institutional, (3) institutional, (4) construction and demolition, (4) construction and demolition, (5) municipal services, (5) municipal services, (6) treatment plant sites, (6) treatment plant sites, (7) industrial, (7) industrial, (8) agricultural. (8) agricultural.

12 13-2 Types of Solid Wastes Residential and Commercial Special Wastes Hazardous Wastes Construction and Demolition Municipal Services Treatment Plant Wastes and Other Residues Industrial Solid Waste Agricultural Wastes

13 13.3 Composition of Solid Wastes Composition of MSW Composition of MSW Distribution of Individual Waste Components Distribution of Individual Waste Components Effect of Waste Diversions on Distribution of Components in Residential MSW Effect of Waste Diversions on Distribution of Components in Residential MSW

14 13-4 Determination of the Composition of MSW in the Field Residential MSW Commercial and Industrial MSW The field procedure for component identification for commercial and non- process industrial solid wastes involves the analysis of representative waste samples taken directly from the source, not from a mixed waste load in a collection vehicle. The field procedure for component identification for commercial and non- process industrial solid wastes involves the analysis of representative waste samples taken directly from the source, not from a mixed waste load in a collection vehicle.

15 13-5 Types of Materials Recovered from MSW Materials Commonly Separated from MSW Materials Commonly Separated from MSW Specifications for Recovered Materials Specifications for Recovered Materials 13-6 Future Changes in Waste Composition Impacts of Waste Diversion Programs Impacts of Waste Diversion Programs Future Changes in Waste Components Future Changes in Waste Components

16 14 Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Municipal Solid Waste Physical Properties of MSW Specific Weight Moisture Content Particle Size and Size Distribution Field Capacity

17 14- 2 Chemical properties of MSW Proximate Analysis Proximate Analysis Fusing Point of Ash Fusing Point of Ash Ultimate Analysis of Solid Waste Components Ultimate Analysis of Solid Waste Components Typical proximate analysis and data for materials found in residendtial, commercial, and industrial solid Typical proximate analysis and data for materials found in residendtial, commercial, and industrial solid Essential Nutrients and Other Elements Essential Nutrients and Other Elements

18 14- 3 Biological Properties of MSW Biodegradability of Organic Waste Components Biodegradability of Organic Waste Components Production of Odors Production of Odors Breeding of Flies Breeding of Flies Physical, Chemical, and Biological Transformations of Solid Waste Physical Transformations Physical Transformations Biological Transformations Biological Transformations

19 15 Disposal of Solid Wastes and Residual Matter 15-1 The Landfill Method of Solid Waste Disposal The Landfilling Process The Landfilling Process Preparation of the site for landfilling. Preparation of the site for landfilling. Reactions Occurring in Landfills. Reactions Occurring in Landfills. Concerns with the Landfilling of Solid Wastes Concerns with the Landfilling of Solid Wastes

20 15-2 Composition and Characteristics, Generation and Control of Landfill Gases Composition and Characteristics of Landfill Gas Composition and Characteristics of Landfill Gas Generation of Landfill Gases Generation of Landfill Gases Management of Landfill Gas Management of Landfill Gas

21 15-3 Composition, formation and control of leachate in landfills Composition of Leachate Composition of Leachate Water Balance and Leachate Generation In Landfills Water Balance and Leachate Generation In Landfills Fate of Constituents in Leachate in Subsurface Migration Fate of Constituents in Leachate in Subsurface Migration Control of Leachate in Landfills Control of Leachate in Landfills Leachate Collection Systems Leachate Collection Systems Leachate Management Options Leachate Management Options

22 15-4 Environmental Quality Monitoring at Landfills Vadose Zone Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Landfill Air Quality Monitoring


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