2Learning Procedures Warming-Up: Story Chaining The Basics of Short Story
3Story Chainingsimultaneous, humiliate, dread, apron, linger frown, eagle, abnormal, UFO, socks, futile faint, safe and sound, friends and foes, cuddle, sob, beard, rice cooker, bikini stare, conceited, scold, beach, Superman
4What is a Short Story?A brief, imaginative narrative containing few characters, simple plot, conflict, and suspense which leads to a climax and a swift conclusion.
5Key ElementsTypically short story has four key elements – Character (fewer is better), Setting (brief but poetic and vivid), Plot (as interesting as possible), and Theme (relating to majority of readers).
6CharacterCharacter – Any personalities who are involved in the plot of the story (people, animals, fantasy characters)Usually less than 6 in a short story
7Character Types of Characters: Round- fully developed, has many different character traitsFlat- stereotyped, one-dimensional, few traitsStatic – Does not changeDynamic – Changes as a result of the story's events
8CharacterizationHow the author develops the characters, especially the main character.This is done through:what the character does or sayswhat others say of and to the characterauthor’s word choice in descriptive passages
9Characterization Direct characterization Indirect characterization The author directly states what the character’s personality is like. Example: cruel, kindIndirect characterizationShowing a character’s personality through his/her actions, thoughts, feelings, words, appearance or other character’s observations or reactions
10PROTAGONIST Usually the “good guy” or hero in the story The main character that we followThe character that strives to solve the conflict
11ANTAGONIST Types of antagonists: people nature society The “bad guy” or villain in the storyUsually creates conflict for the main characterTypes of antagonists:peoplenaturesociety
12Setting The time and place of the story’s action includes the following:The geographical locationFor example: London, Cairo, VancouverThe time periodFor example: 1865, during WWII, todayThe socio-economic characteristics of the locationFor example: wealthy suburbsThe specific building, room etc.For example: a log cabin, a bus, a military base
13Let’s play a game. Imagine a room. Take a moment to form a mental picture of this room.Okay, now what if I tell you that the room is a restaurant kitchen? Did your mental picture just change?What if I tell you that the restaurant’s closed for the night, and the kitchen is dark except for the streetlamp shining in the back window. Did your mental picture just change again?Using specific details in your writing will guide the reader’s imagination, helping the reader to imagine a scene the way you have imagined it yourself.
14 A nurse guided us to a room where my best friend, my grandpa, was lying on a bed. My father was sitting sadly beside grandpa’s bed. A nurse guided us to a room. After a long week gap I saw my grandpa — my best friend. Grandpa was sleeping peacefully on hospital bed. There were many small TV and radio alike boxes with tiny lights. Few boxes were making “beep-beep” sound in rhythm. I knew that the sound was fading heart beats of my best friend — my grandpa. Then I saw my father, with red and swollen eyes, sitting closure to grandpa’s bed.
15What is the Plot?Plot is how the author arranges events to develop his/her basic idea. It is the sequence of events in a story or play. The plot is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning, middle and end.
16Introduction Introduces the reader to: Setting Characters involved Narrative Hook: question or statement that grabs the reader’s attention
17Inciting IncidentThe first major action in the story that sets the story in motion (gets the ball rolling).
18Rising Action Incidents which carry the plot along. It often includes the following:ForeshadowingFlashbackConflictSuspense倒叙 埋下伏笔
19FORESHADOWINGA technique for hinting at events that may occur later in the plot.music
20FLASHBACKThe insertion of an earlier event into the time order of a narrative.
21ConflictIt is what prevents the main character from getting what he or she wantsThe plot is driven by climax and it is THE MOST IMPORTANT FEATURE OF THE STORYThere are two types of conflicts: Internal and External
22Plot: Types of Conflict Interpersonal ConflictHuman vs. HumanHuman vs. NatureHuman vs. SocietyInternal ConflictHuman vs. Self
23SUSPENSEThe feeling of excitement and curiosity that keeps the reader turning the pages; created by making the readers wonder how the conflict will be resolved
24ClimaxThe turning point in the story: the high point of interest and suspenseClimaxRising Action or ComplicationsFalling Action
25Falling ActionAll events following the climax or turning point in the story. These events are a result of the action taken at the climax.
26ResolutionThe end of the central conflict: it shows how the situation turns out and ties up loose ends
27Point of View Vantage point from which the writer tells the story. First person- One of the characters is actually telling the story using the pronoun “I”Third person- Centers on one character’s thoughts and actions.Omniscient- All knowing narrator. Can center on the thoughts any actions of any and all characters.
28ThemeTheme is the “main idea” or central message of the story. It usually contains some insight into the human condition – telling something about humans and life.The theme can be stated directly or implied by the events and actions in the story.