Presentation on theme: "Literary Terms. Short story Short story A short story is short in length. It can be read in one sitting. It is fiction and usually has few characters,"— Presentation transcript:
Short story Short story A short story is short in length. It can be read in one sitting. It is fiction and usually has few characters, a simple setting and other story elements.
Elements of a short story Elements of a short story A. Plot – the foundation of a short story It is what the story is about and has five main parts.
The Short Story This PLOT DIAGRAM shows how the main events in a short story are organized into a plot. Draw the Plot Diagram
Introduction or exposition Introduction or exposition The first part of plot a. Introduces the characters b. Introduces the setting c. Introduces the problem of the story, called the complication
Rising Action Rising Action The second part of plot is called rising action. This is where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the story is revealed (events between the introduction and climax).
Climax or turning point Climax or turning point . It is the high point of interest or the turning point in the story It is the point in a plot that creates the greatest intensity, suspense, or interest The reader wonders what will happen next; will the conflict be resolved or not?
Falling Action Falling Action The events and complications begin to resolve themselves. The events and complications begin to resolve themselves. The reader knows what has happened next and if the conflict was resolved or not (events between climax and denouement).
Resolution, or Denouement Resolution, or Denouement This is the final outcome or conclusion of a story. a. It is the end of the story – a wrapping up of all of the loose ends b. All or most of the conflicts have been settled Denouement means the end in French
Plot order The order in which events occur in the story a. Sequential order – told in chronological (time) order from beginning to end b. In medias res – (in the middle of things) – the story begins somewhere near the middle and requires a flashback to acquaint the reader with what happened in the beginning
Character A person, animal or a natural force presented as a person appearing in a literary work.
Protagonist The central character that drives the action Must solve the problem
Antagonist Whatever created the problem This does not have to be a character.
Characterization The process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character.
Types –Dynamic character changes at some point in the story. –Static character does not change. –Round character = many details given. –Flat character: has only one or two personality traits. They are one dimensional, like a piece of cardboard. They can summed up in one phrase –Stock/stereotype: those that reader immediately recognizes Bully Villain Hero clown
Conflict Conflict A struggle between opposing forces 1. external conflict can exist between two people, nature or a whole society. Ex. man vs. man, man vs. nature, man vs. society, etc. Ex. man vs. man, man vs. nature, man vs. society, etc. 2. internal conflict is when the struggle is within the character, such as man vs. self
Setting Setting Time and place; tone & mood 1. physical setting is the physical environment in which the story takes place –Where & when 2. psychological setting is the mood in which the story takes place 3. TONE: mood / atmosphere author creates through choice of setting, descriptive words & details. What feeling is created at the beginning of the story? Is it bright and cheerful or dark and frightening?
Theme Theme The point the author makes with his story –The theme of The Wizard of Oz is there’s no place like home. –Theme is a universal statement.
Point-of-View Point-of-View Who the author chooses to tell the story 1. first person point-of-view is when the narrator is a character within the story that tells it as if it happened to him/her personally. The narrator may use first person pronouns such as I and we Subjective is when the character is an active part of the story Objective is when the character is in the story but not of the story.
2. Third person point-of-view is when an unknown narrator outside of the story tells the narrative and refers to the characters with third-person pronouns such as “he,” “she,” “they.” a. Third person limited-this narrator has access to the thoughts and feelings of only one character. b. Third person omniscient is when the narrator tells what the characters say, do and think. The narrator is all-knowing. c. Third person objective- the narrator has access to only characters’ actions and speech, not thoughts or feelings. The narrator communicates the narrative objectively, reporting only what they “see” and “hear.”
Third Person Limited-Little Red Riding Hood Little Red Riding Hood opened the door to Grandma’s room and stepped inside. She sniffed lightly. There was a strange smell in the room that she didn’t like. She squinted at Grandma. Why was the room so dark? “Hello, my dear. Come closer.” Grandma patted the bedspread beside her. Grandma’s voice was huskier than normal. Well, she was sick, after all. Little Red moved closer to the bed until she could see Grandma. What was wrong with Grandma’s eyes? “What big eyes you have today, Grandma.” “All the better to see you with, my dear.” In this scene, the reader gets several inner thoughts from Red Riding Hood – she doesn’t like the smell in the room, she wonders why it is dark and she thinks there is something wrong with Grandma’s eyes. In contrast, you don’t get any of Grandma’s/The Wolf’s thoughts; all you see and hear from Grandma Wolf are the things that he says or does. In Limited Point of View you only see one character’s thoughts and emotions. For all other characters, you only observe their outer actions and words.
Third Person Objective Using Little Red: Little Red Riding Hood opened the door to Grandma’s room and stepped inside. She sniffed lightly. She squinted at Grandma. “Hello, my dear. Come closer.” Grandma patted the bedspread beside her. Little Red moved closer to the bed. “What big eyes you have today, Grandma.” “All the better to see you with, my dear.” In this example, we’ve lost all of Red’s thoughts and observations about the room and her Grandma. We can only see what physically happens and hear what is actually said
Third Person Omniscient Back to Little Red: Little Red Riding Hood opened the door to Grandma’s room and stepped inside. She sniffed lightly. There was a strange smell in the room that she didn’t like. She squinted at Grandma. Why was the room so dark? “Hello, my dear. Come closer.” The Wolf patted the bedspread beside him. The girl needed to be closer so she couldn’t avoid the attack. The wolf’s mouth watered in anticipation of this juicy snack. Grandma’s voice was huskier than normal. Well, she was sick, after all. Little Red moved closer to the bed until she could see Grandma. What was wrong with Grandma’s eyes? “What big eyes you have today, Grandma.” Drat, the girl sounded suspicious. He would have to quickly reassure her so she didn’t leave. “All the better to see you with, my dear.” In Omniscient point of view, the reader gets the thoughts and feelings of ALL characters in the scene. In addition to Red’s uneasiness about the smell and the darkness, the reader learns about the wolf’s anticipation of the attack and his desire to calm the fears of Little Red so he can attack and eat her. Omniscient point of view allows the reader to dip in and out of each characters’ thoughts