5 Plot StructureExposition – introduces the setting, the characters and the basic situationInciting Incident – introduces the central conflictRising Action – events leading up to the climax
6 Climax – high point of interest or suspense Falling Action – events after the climax that lead to the resolutionResolution (Denouement) – general insight or change is conveyed
7 SettingThe setting is the time and place of the action.
8 TimeTime can include not only the historical period – past, present, future – but also a specific year, season or time of day.
9 PlacePlace may involve not only the geographical place – a region, country, state, or town – but also the social, economic or cultural environment.
10 CharactersA character is a person or animal that takes part in the action of a literary work.
11 ProtagonistThe main character, or protagonist, is the most important character in a story.This character often changes in some important way as a result of the story’s events.
12 AntagonistAn antagonist is the character or force in conflict with the protagonist.
13 CharacterizationCharacterization is the act of creating and developing a character.
14 Direct Characterization In direct characterization, the author directly states a character’s traits.
15 Indirect Characterization In indirect characterization, an author provides clues about a character by describing what a character looks like, does and says, as well as how other characters react to him/her.It is up to the reader to draw conclusions.
16 Point of ViewThe writer’s choice of narrator determines the story’s point of view, which directs the type and amount of information the writer reveals.
17 First PersonWhen a character in the story tells the story, that character is a first person narrator.
18 First PersonThis person may be a major character, a minor character, or just a witness.Readers see only what this character sees.The first person narrator may or may not be reliable.
19 Third PersonWhen a voice outside the story narrates, the story has a third person narrator.
20 Third Person Omniscient An omniscient, or all-knowing third person narrator can tell readers what any character thinks or feels.
21 Third Person LimitedA limited third person narrator sees the world through one character’s eyes and reveals only that character’s thoughts.
22 ThemeThe theme is the central message or insight into life revealed in a literary work.
23 More ElementsConflictForeshadowingMoodIronySymbol
24 Conflict A conflict is a struggle between opposing forces. Characters in conflict form the basis of short stories, novels, and plays.
25 External ConflictIn an external conflict, the main character struggles against an outside force:Another characterSocietal standards or expectationsNature
26 Internal ConflictThe character is in conflict with him/herself.
27 ForeshadowingForeshadowing is the use of clues that suggest events that have yet to occur.This technique creates suspense, keeping readers wondering what will happen next.
28 MoodMood is the feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage.The mood is often suggested by descriptive details.
29 IronyIrony is the general term for literary techniques that portray differences between appearance and reality, or expectation and result.
30 Verbal IronyWords suggest the opposite of what is meant
31 Dramatic IronyThere is a contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader or audience knows to be true.
32 Situational IronyAn event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience.
33 Symbol A symbol is anything that stands for something else. In addition to having it’s own meaning, a symbol also represents abstract ideas.