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The Elements of Fiction

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1 The Elements of Fiction
Short Stories

2 SETTING A. The setting is where the story takes place. Setting includes the following: The Geographical Location (for example: Wyoming, London, Cairo, Vancouver) 2. The Time Period (for example: 1865, during WWII, today) The Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Location (for example: wealthy suburbs, depression dustbowl) 4. The Specific Building or Room (for example: a prep school, a log cabin, a bus, a military base)

3 B. The setting can be used to tell readers about the characters.
C. The setting can also be used to set the atmosphere for the story.

4 Characters The people (or animals, things, etc. presented as people) appearing in a literary work. “Me fail English, that’s unpossible.”

5 Character Continued 1. Round Characters: are convincing and true to life. They have many different and sometimes even contradictory personality traits. 2. Dynamic Characters: undergo some type of change or development in the story, often because of something that happens to them. 3. Flat Characters: are stereotyped, shallow, and often symbolic. They have only one or two personality traits. 4. Static Characters: do not change in the course of the story.

6 B. Protagonist: The main character in a literary work (like Cinderella or Snow White in fairy tales) C. Antagonist: The character who opposes the protagonist (like the wicked stepmothers in the fairy tales)

7 Characterization A. Direct Characterization
The author develops the personality of the character by direct statements. Patrick: Well, you're still yellow! And do you know what else is yellow?! SpongeBob: WHAT?! Patrick: YOU ARE!

8 B. Indirect Characterization: Revealing a character’s personality through:
1. the character’s thoughts, words, and actions 2. the comments of other characters 3. the character’s physical appearance

9 Plot A. Plot is the literary element that describes the structure of a story. It shows arrangement of events and actions within a story.

10 Plot Components

11 1. Exposition: the start of the story, the situation before the action starts.
2. Rising Action: the series of conflicts and crisis in the story that lead to the climax. 3. Climax: the turning point, the most intense moment-----either mentally or in action 4. Falling Action: all of the action which follows the climax 5. Resolution: the conclusion, the tying together of all of the threads

12 Plot Conflict is the dramatic struggle between two forces in a story. Without conflict, there is not plot.

13 Types of Conflict a. Human vs. Human b. Human vs. Nature
c. Human vs. Society d. Human vs. Self

14 Point of View The Point of View (POV) is the perspective from which the story is told. 1. Omniscient Point of View: The author is telling the story directly. 2. First Person Point of View: Told from the viewpoint of one of the characters, using the first person pronoun “I.”

15 Theme The theme is the central idea or central message of the story. It usually contains some insight into the human condition – telling something about humans and life. The theme can be stated directly or implied by the events and actions in the story.

16 Symbolism A symbol represents an idea, quality, or concept larger than itself. 1. A journey can symbolize life. 2. Water may represent cleanliness and renewal. 3. A lion can be a symbol of courage. 4. A red rose can represent love.

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