Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18: Psychological Disorders"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 18: Psychological Disorders Case Study: Not Guilty by Reason of InsanitySection 1: Understanding Psychological DisordersSection 2: Anxiety and Mood DisordersSection 3: Dissociative and Somatoform DisordersSection 4: SchizophreniaSection 5: Personality DisordersLab: Applying What You’ve Learned
2 Case Study: Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity The majority of people with serious psychological disorders are not dangerous to others. Some, however, commit violent crimes. Of these, some are found not guilty by reason of insanity and are sent to psychiatric institutions instead of prison. When an accused person pleads insanity, the prosecutor tries to prove that the person was sane at the time of the crime and the defense tries to prove he or she was not. Under law, one must be either all or nothing, but in reality most psychological disorders are a matter of degree.–
4 What do you think?In general, what criteria must a defendant meet to be ruled legally insane?Do you support the use of the insanity defense? Why or why not?
5 Section 1 at a Glance Understanding Psychological Disorders Psychological disorders are behavior patterns or mental processes that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person’s ability to cope with everyday life.Psychological disorders are classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, also known as the DSM.
6 Why were people with mental illnesses seen as criminals?
7 What Are Psychological Disorders? Psychological disorders are behavior patterns or mental processes that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person’s ability to cope with everyday life.The great majority of people are never admitted to mental hospitals and most people never seek the help of psychologists or psychiatrists.Estimates suggest that one in four American adults have experienced some type of psychological disorder.For people aged 15 to 44, psychological disorders are the leading cause of disability in the United States.
9 Identifying Psychological Disorders People with psychological disorders usually do not differ much form so-called normal people.Certain behavior patterns and mental processes may suggest that an individual has a psychological disorder.Psychologists use several criteria to determine whether a person’s behavior indicates the presence of a psychological disorder.TypicalityNormality is determined by the degree to which a behavior is average, or typical, of the majority of people.Scientific and artistic geniuses are not typical, but are not abnormal.People who are quite normal may have lifestyles that differ widely from the rest of the community.Additional measurements must be taken into account.
10 MaladaptivityMaladaptivity is a behavior that impairs an individual’s ability to function adequately in everyday life.Behavior that causes misery and distress rather than happiness and fulfillment, or that is dangerousEmotional DiscomfortDepression and anxiety cause extreme emotional discomfort.Helplessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, extreme sadness, and withdrawalSocially Unacceptable BehaviorCultural context of a behavior must be taken into account.Culture-bound syndromes: clusters of symptoms
11 Classifying Psychological Disorders Classification helps to determine:How many people have a given disorderWhat factors may be associated with a disorderDiagnosis and treatmentAPA's classification systemUsed to communicate needs and treatmentModern categories based on observable signs and symptomsDSMAnxietyMoodDissociativeSomatoformSchizophrenicPersonalityMajor Types of Disorders–
13 What are some ways in which the DSM has been revised? Reading CheckSummarizeWhat are some ways in which the DSM has been revised?Answer: disorders are no longer organized by presumed causes, categories have been added and removed, and the number of psychological disorders has grown
14 Cultural Diversity and Psychology Culture-Bound SyndromesIn certain cultures, one can find combinations of psychiatric and physical symptoms recognized as disease only in that culture. These are often treated with folk remedies.Hikikomori: Japanese people who have withdrawn from social lifeLatah: In Malaysia, a person who has a severe reaction to being startled. When surprised, latahs mimic the speech of those around them and obey any orderGhostsickness: Navajo illness with symptoms of bad dreams, loss of appetite, feeling of suffocation, hallucinations, fainting, and terrorHwa-byung: In Korea, a name for physical symptoms that arise from the suppression of angerAmok: In Malaysia, a previously peaceful man who suddenly tries to kill or injure othersSusto: some Hispanics; the experience of acute unhappiness following a frightening eventZar: Middle East and North Africa, women laugh and bang heads–
16 Section 2 at a Glance Anxiety and Mood Disorders Anxiety disorders occur when people feel fear or nervousness out of proportion to the actual threat.Mood disorders are characterized by mood changes that are inappropriate for the situation to which they are responding.
17 Anxiety and Mood Disorders Main IdeaAnxiety disorders cause people to experience irrational or excessive fear. Mood disorders cause people to experience mood changes that are inappropriate to the situation.Reading FocusWhat are some characteristics of anxiety?What are five major types of anxiety disorders?How do psychologists explain anxiety disorders?How do the two main types of mood disorders compare?Which theories explain the origins of mood disorders?
18 Why does an English soccer star need three refrigerators?
19 What Is Anxiety?Anxiety refers to a generalized state of dread or uneasiness that occurs in response to a vague or imagined danger, as opposed to fear, which is a response to a real danger or threat.Characterized byNervousnessInability to relaxConcern about losing controlTremblingSweatingRapid heart rateShortness of breathIncreased blood pressureEveryone feels anxious at times, but constant anxiety can interfere with effective living.
20 Types of Anxiety Disorders Phobic DisorderPhobia: derives from the Greek root phobos, which means “fear”Specific phobia is the most common of all anxiety disorders and refers to a persistent excessive fear of a particular object or situation.Most common includeZoophobia: fear of animalsClaustrophobia: fear of enclosed spacesAcrophobia: fear of heightsArachnophobia: fear of spidersSocial phobia is characterized by persistent fear of social situations in which one might be exposed to the scrutiny of others.
22 Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia People with panic disorder have recurring and unexpected panic attacks, or relatively short periods of intense fear or discomfort characterized by shortness of breath, dizziness, rapid heart rate, trembling, choking, etc.Agoraphobia: the fear of being in places or situations in which escape may be difficult or impossible such as crowded public places.Many people with agoraphobia develop panic attacks when in public.Generalized Anxiety DisorderAn excessive or unrealistic worry about life circumstances that lasts for at least six months.Few people seek treatment because it does not differ, except in intensity and duration, from the normal worries of everyday life.
23 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsessions are unwanted thoughts, ideas, or mental images that occur over and over again, and most people try to ignore or suppress them.Compulsions are repetitive ritual behaviors, often involving checking or cleaning something.People are usually aware that the obsessions are unjustified, which distinguishes obsessions from delusions.Stress DisordersInclude post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorderSimilar symptoms, but PTSD is more severe and longer-lastingPTSD occurs after rape, abuse, severe accident, natural disasters, and war atrocities.
26 Explaining Anxiety Disorders Psychological ViewsPsychoanalytic views are no longer widely accepted, but have affected the classification of psychological disorders.Learning theorists believe that phobias are learned in childhood.Cognitive theorists believe that people make themselves feel anxious by responding negatively to most situations.Biological ViewsHeredity may play a roleStudies of twins indicate that having a parent or sibling with a disorder increases the chance an individual will have a disorder.Some psychologists believe that people who rapidly acquired strong fears of real dangers would be more likely to live and reproduce.Interaction of Factors: some cases reflect the interaction of biological and psychological factors.
28 Types of Mood Disorders Most people have mood changes that reflect the normal ups and downs of life, but mood changes that are inappropriate to a situation can signal a mood disorder.Two types: depression and bipolar disorderMajor DepressionFeelings of helplessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, and great sadnessThe DSM-IV contains a list of symptoms to help diagnoseBipolar DisorderA cycle of mood changes from depression to wild elation and back againPeriod of mania, or extreme excitement characterized by hyperactivity and chaotic behaviorPostpartum DepressionSome women suffer symptoms of depression after giving birthCan harm both mother and child
30 Explaining Mood Disorders Psychological ViewsThe psychoanalytic view of depression connects the past to the present.Learning theorists: “learned helplessness” makes people prone.Cognitive theorists: habitual style of explaining life events.Attribution theory: people assign different types of explanations to events, which affect self-esteem and self-efficacy.Beck suggests that people who are depressed have a negative view of themselves, their experiences, and their future.Biological ViewsMood disorders occur more often in the close relatives of affected individuals than they do in the general population.Two neurotransmitters in the brain—serotonin and noradrenaline—may partly explain the connection between genes and mood.Biological and Psychological FactorsA combination of factors is most likely at work.
31 Current Research in Psychology Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Iraq War VeteransFor those who survive the horrors of war, the trauma of combat may not be left behind on the battlefield. Some veterans report vivid flashbacks and nightmares.A high incidence of PTSD has been reported among soldiers returning from war in Iraq and Afghanistan.Researchers are seeking reasons for what some call a PTSD epidemic.Younger veterans are more likely to be diagnosed.Those with traumatic head injuries more likely to be diagnosed.Currently veterans can receive five years of free health care for any mental disorder related to combat.Because PTSD shows up long after the trauma, increased mental health services will be necessary.–
33 Thinking CriticallyWhy do you think younger veterans are more likely to be diagnosed with PTSD?Given the current research on PTSD, what steps do you think the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs should take to deal with the effects of PTSD in returning soldiers?
34 Section 3 at a Glance Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders Dissociative disorders are characterized by the separation of certain personality components or mental processes from conscious thought.Somatoform disorders are expressed in the form of actual physical symptoms.
35 Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders Main IdeaDissociative disorders cause people to lose their memory or identity. Somatoform disorders cause people to express psychological distress through physical symptoms.Reading FocusWhat is dissociation, and what are the four dissociative disorders?How do theorists explain the origins of dissociative disorders?What is somatization, and what are the most common types of somatoform disorders?How do theorists explain the origins of somatoform disorders?
37 Dissociative Disorders Dissociation: the separation of certain personality components or mental processes from conscious thoughtIn some situations, it is normal (becoming engrossed in a book).If dissociation occurs as a way to avoid stressful events or feelings, it can signal a disorder.Dissociative AmnesiaCharacterized by a sudden loss of memory, usually following a particularly stressful or traumatic event.It cannot be explained biologically.The incidence of dissociative amnesia rises markedly during wartime and natural disasters.
38 Dissociative FugueCharacterized by not only forgetting personal information and past events but also by suddenly relocating from home or work and taking on a new identity.Individuals may appear healthy until the fugue ends, when they will not remember anything that happened during the fugue.Dissociative Identity DisorderInvolves the existence of two or more personalities within a single individual. The various personalities may or may not be aware of the other.Depersonalization DisorderDepersonalization: feelings of detachment from one’s mental processes or bodyPeople describe being outside their bodies.
39 Explaining Dissociative Disorders Psychoanalytic theory suggests people dissociate in order to repress unacceptable urges.Learning theorists claim individuals have learned not to think about disturbing events in order to avoid feelings, of guilt, shame, or pain.Cognitive and biological theorists have not offered a complete explanation of dissociative disorders.
41 Somatoform DisordersSomatization: the expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms. People with somatoform disorders have psychological problems (such as depression) but experience inexplicable physical symptoms (such as paralysis).Patients experience a change in or loss of physical functioning in a major part of the body for which there is no known medical explanationPatients often show a lack of concern for their symptoms.Conversion DisorderA person’s unrealistic preoccupation with thoughts that he or she has a serious disease.Patients may become absorbed by minor physical symptoms and sensations.Hypochondriasis–
42 Explaining Somatoform Disorders Explanations are primarily psychological.Psychoanalytic theory suggests disorders occur when individuals repress emotions associated with forbidden urges and instead express them symbolically in physical symptoms.Other psychologists have argued that people with conversion disorder “convert” psychological stress into actual medical problems.Behavioral theorists have suggested that somatoform symptoms can serve as a reinforcer if they successfully allow a person to escape from anxiety.There is some evidence that biological or genetic factors may play a role.
43 Section 4 at a Glance Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is usually considered the most serious psychological disorder and can be very disabling.Schizophrenia is characterized by a loss of contact with reality.The three types of schizophrenia are paranoid, disorganized, and catatonic schizophrenia.
44 Schizophrenia Main Idea Reading Focus Schizophrenia is the most serious psychological disorder, causing thought disruption and a decreased ability to function normally.Reading FocusWhat are the basic symptoms of schizophrenia?What are the three major types of schizophrenia?How do psychological and biological explanations of schizophrenia differ?
45 What can paintings of cats reveal about a human mind?
46 What Is Schizophrenia?Schizophrenia: characterized by loss of contact with reality.Can be very disabling and can lead to the affected person’s inability to function independentlyFirst appears in young adulthoodUsually develops gradually, but can also appear suddenlyMost striking symptoms are:HallucinationsDelusionsThought disordersOther symptoms include social withdrawal, impaired social skills, loss of normal emotional responses.Occasionally, may go into a catatonic stupor: an immobile, expressionless, comalike state.
47 What is the basic characteristic of schizophrenia? Reading CheckSummarizeWhat is the basic characteristic of schizophrenia?Answer: loss of contact with reality
49 Types of Schizophrenia Paranoid SchizophreniaDelusions or frequent auditory hallucinations that center on one theme, often a theme of persecutionDisorganized SchizophreniaIncoherent in their thought and speech and disorganized in their behavior; delusions and hallucinations are unconnectedEmotionless or show inappropriate emotionsCatatonic SchizophreniaActivity may slow to a stupor and then suddenly switch to agitationMay hold unusual, uncomfortable body positions for long periods of time, even after their arms and legs swell and stiffen
50 What are the three types of schizophrenia? Reading CheckSummarizeWhat are the three types of schizophrenia?Answer: paranoid, disorganized, and catatonic schizophrenia
51 Explaining Schizophrenia Psychological ViewsResult of overwhelming of the ego by urges from the id.Fantasies become confused with reality.Family environment may spur disease, but does not cause it.Biological ViewsStudies try to link abnormal brain functioning and structure with specific symptoms.Heredity, complications during pregnancy and birth, and birth during winter were all shown to affect rates of schizophrenia.Multifactorial ModelBiological and psychological factors may interact in development.The model suggests that even severely dysfunctional environmental factors are not enough to lead to the disease.
53 Section 5 at a Glance Personality Disorders Personality disorders are patterns of inflexible traits that disrupt social life or work and may distress the affected individual.Four common personality disorders are paranoid, schizoid, antisocial, and avoidant.
54 Personality Disorders Main IdeaPersonality disorders are characterized by patterns of unchanging personality traits that disrupt people’s social lives and work lives.Reading FocusWhat are personality disorders, and how do they differ from other psychological disorders?What are ten types of personality disorders?How do psychological and biological views explain the origins of antisocial personality disorder?
56 What Are Personality Disorders? Personality disorders: patterns of inflexible traits that disrupt social life or work and may distress the affected individualAn enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits itUsually show up by late adolescencePsychological disorders are illnesses that an individual experiences as episodes. In contrast, personality disorders are enduring traits that are major components of the individual’s personality.
57 Reading CheckContrastHow are personality disorders different from other disorders that they may resemble?Answer: Personality disorders are patterns of inflexible, enduring traits, not episodes of illness.
59 What are some ways that personality disorders can make life difficult? Reading CheckAnalyzeWhat are some ways that personality disorders can make life difficult?Answer: Individuals with personality disorders have great difficulty making friends and developing lasting relationships with others, and it is difficult for them to retain or achieve success in a job, which can lead to further isolation or financial hardship.
60 Explaining Personality Disorders Both psychological and biological theories have been suggested to explain some of them.Psychoanalytic theory suggests a lack of guilt underlies the antisocial personality.Learning theorists suggest children who are not reinforced for good behavior learn antisocial behavior.Cognitive theorists argue antisocial teens use a faulty view of others’ actions.Psychological ViewsAntisocial personality disorder appears to run in families.Some evidence suggests that antisocial people have less developed emotional centers in their brains.Biological factor by itself is unlikely to cause the development of antisocial personality disorder.Biological Views–
62 Reading CheckAnalyzeHow may childrearing affect the development of antisocial personality disorder?Answer: If rejected, punished harshly, raised with a lack of affection, or lack appropriate role models, children may develop an antisocial personality disorder.