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 RAP #5: Dreadful Development  Origins of the State  Political Theory  HW: Theorists Shutterboards  Study for Theorists Quiz Essential Question: What.

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Presentation on theme: " RAP #5: Dreadful Development  Origins of the State  Political Theory  HW: Theorists Shutterboards  Study for Theorists Quiz Essential Question: What."— Presentation transcript:

1  RAP #5: Dreadful Development  Origins of the State  Political Theory  HW: Theorists Shutterboards  Study for Theorists Quiz Essential Question: What ideals and principles inspired the creation of our democratic government? Content Objective: Compare major political theorists contributions to our current system of government. Language Objective: Create a shutterboard to review major political philosophers’ theories. AGENDA Tues 8/30 & Wed 8/31

2 RAP #5: Dreadful Development “Responsibility is the thing people dread most of all. Yet, it is the one thing in the world that develops us…” --Frank Crane  Reflect upon your personal development in the past few months, past year, and past four years.  Include your feelings/thoughts on the idea of “dreading responsibility.”  What are ways we develop via responsibility? Give specific examples.

3  Dominant political unit in world today (190+)  Sometimes called: nation, nation-state, country 1) Definition of state: o Body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically, and the power to make and enforce laws w/o the consent of any higher authority. Body of people: population ex. Vatican City v. ChinaVatican City China Territory: land w/ borders ex. Vatican City v. RussiaVatican City Russia Organized politically: government ex. Anarchy  DictatorshipAnarchy Dictatorship Sovereignty: supreme and absolute authority to govern ex. United States v. California; Israel v. Palestine

4  How did states form? Force Theory : one person/group claimed control forced all w/in to submit ex. European colonization of Africa / MachiavelliMachiavelli Evolutionary Theory : families developed into state ex. Family  Clan  Tribe  State (nomadic  agrarian)Clan o Divine rights Theory: ruler chosen by God (15 th -18 th century) ex. Japan (1945), Egypt, Aztec, Maya, ChineseMaya o Social contract Theory: state exists to serve will of peopleserve ex. Enlightenment thinkers: Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Montesquieu

5  Leviathan (1651)  State of Nature = anarchy resulting in “war of all against all”  Life would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short”  Escape this condition by voluntarily entering into a social contract  Give up some of freedom and agree to obey absolute ruler Lasting impact on American philosophy: Alexander Hamilton = strong executive

6  2 nd Treatise on Govt (1689)  State of Nature = natural rights (ie. Life, Liberty, property)  A legitimate government cannot exist until the people have given their consent to be ruled by it.  Self-interest to enter social contract  If not protected by ruler, have right to overthrow and start again Lasting impact on American philosophy: Thomas Jefferson = Dec. of Independence & opposed to elitism of Senate

7  The Spirit of Laws (1748)  State of Nature = governments should not dominate or oppress others  Separate branches in govt to divide / limit power Lasting impact on American philosophy: James Madison = 3 branches / Constitution

8 Lasting impact on American philosophy: Revolutionaries = limited govt & popular sovereignty  The Social Contract (1762)  State of Nature = govt must serve will of people  “ Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains ”  If govt fails to serve general will, should be dissolved

9  Create shutter board including each theorist: 1. Hobbes 2. Locke 3. Montesquieu 4. Rousseau  Each theorist will have two shutters w/ following info: 1. Writing/Philosophy or view on Human Nature 2. Impact on American Political Philosophy

10  Locke believed that people are basically reasonable and sociable, but they are also self- interested.  People who are stronger or smarter might try to take the life, liberty, and property of the weak.  Weaker people might band together to fight against the strong.

11  To get something you must give up something.  In a social contract everyone promises to give up the absolute right to do anything s/he would do in a state of nature.  In return everyone receives the security that can be provided by a gov’t.  Everyone has her/his natural rights preserved.

12  1. Basic rights- a claim to have or obtain something, or to act in a way that is justified on legal or moral grounds.  2. Natural rights- life, liberty & property- what is considered essential to humanity; what makes us human beings and what defines our purpose in life.  Locke said that natural rights are unalienable – cannot be taken away by someone else!

13  3. Civil rights – Personal rights guaranteed and protected by the Constitution, ie, freedom of speech, press, freedom from discrimination.  The protections and privileges of personal liberty given to all US citizens by the Constitution and Bill of Rights.  4. political rights- right to vote, run for office- which give you control over the gov’t.

14  Life- people want to survive, they want to feel safe.  Liberty- People want to be free from domination by others, to make their own decisions, & to live as they please.  Property- People want to work and gain economic goods such as land, houses, tools, and money, which are necessary for survival.

15  Center for Civic Education. (1995). We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution. Calabasa, CA: U.S. Department of Education  hilosophy/john-locke.jpg

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