Presentation on theme: " RAP #5: Dreadful Development Origins of the State Political Theory HW: Theorists Shutterboards Study for Theorists Quiz Essential Question: What."— Presentation transcript:
RAP #5: Dreadful Development Origins of the State Political Theory HW: Theorists Shutterboards Study for Theorists Quiz Essential Question: What ideals and principles inspired the creation of our democratic government? Content Objective: Compare major political theorists contributions to our current system of government. Language Objective: Create a shutterboard to review major political philosophers’ theories. AGENDA Tues 8/30 & Wed 8/31
RAP #5: Dreadful Development “Responsibility is the thing people dread most of all. Yet, it is the one thing in the world that develops us…” --Frank Crane Reflect upon your personal development in the past few months, past year, and past four years. Include your feelings/thoughts on the idea of “dreading responsibility.” What are ways we develop via responsibility? Give specific examples.
Dominant political unit in world today (190+) Sometimes called: nation, nation-state, country 1) Definition of state: o Body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically, and the power to make and enforce laws w/o the consent of any higher authority. Body of people: population ex. Vatican City v. ChinaVatican City China Territory: land w/ borders ex. Vatican City v. RussiaVatican City Russia Organized politically: government ex. Anarchy DictatorshipAnarchy Dictatorship Sovereignty: supreme and absolute authority to govern ex. United States v. California; Israel v. Palestine
How did states form? Force Theory : one person/group claimed control forced all w/in to submit ex. European colonization of Africa / MachiavelliMachiavelli Evolutionary Theory : families developed into state ex. Family Clan Tribe State (nomadic agrarian)Clan o Divine rights Theory: ruler chosen by God (15 th -18 th century) ex. Japan (1945), Egypt, Aztec, Maya, ChineseMaya o Social contract Theory: state exists to serve will of peopleserve ex. Enlightenment thinkers: Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Montesquieu
Leviathan (1651) State of Nature = anarchy resulting in “war of all against all” Life would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” Escape this condition by voluntarily entering into a social contract Give up some of freedom and agree to obey absolute ruler Lasting impact on American philosophy: Alexander Hamilton = strong executive
2 nd Treatise on Govt (1689) State of Nature = natural rights (ie. Life, Liberty, property) A legitimate government cannot exist until the people have given their consent to be ruled by it. Self-interest to enter social contract If not protected by ruler, have right to overthrow and start again Lasting impact on American philosophy: Thomas Jefferson = Dec. of Independence & opposed to elitism of Senate
The Spirit of Laws (1748) State of Nature = governments should not dominate or oppress others Separate branches in govt to divide / limit power Lasting impact on American philosophy: James Madison = 3 branches / Constitution
Lasting impact on American philosophy: Revolutionaries = limited govt & popular sovereignty The Social Contract (1762) State of Nature = govt must serve will of people “ Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains ” If govt fails to serve general will, should be dissolved
Create shutter board including each theorist: 1. Hobbes 2. Locke 3. Montesquieu 4. Rousseau Each theorist will have two shutters w/ following info: 1. Writing/Philosophy or view on Human Nature 2. Impact on American Political Philosophy
Locke believed that people are basically reasonable and sociable, but they are also self- interested. People who are stronger or smarter might try to take the life, liberty, and property of the weak. Weaker people might band together to fight against the strong.
To get something you must give up something. In a social contract everyone promises to give up the absolute right to do anything s/he would do in a state of nature. In return everyone receives the security that can be provided by a gov’t. Everyone has her/his natural rights preserved.
1. Basic rights- a claim to have or obtain something, or to act in a way that is justified on legal or moral grounds. 2. Natural rights- life, liberty & property- what is considered essential to humanity; what makes us human beings and what defines our purpose in life. Locke said that natural rights are unalienable – cannot be taken away by someone else!
3. Civil rights – Personal rights guaranteed and protected by the Constitution, ie, freedom of speech, press, freedom from discrimination. The protections and privileges of personal liberty given to all US citizens by the Constitution and Bill of Rights. 4. political rights- right to vote, run for office- which give you control over the gov’t.
Life- people want to survive, they want to feel safe. Liberty- People want to be free from domination by others, to make their own decisions, & to live as they please. Property- People want to work and gain economic goods such as land, houses, tools, and money, which are necessary for survival.
Center for Civic Education. (1995). We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution. Calabasa, CA: U.S. Department of Education hilosophy/john-locke.jpg