4 Basic Issues in Development Continuous or discontinuous?One course of development or many?Relative influence of nature and nurture?
5 Basic Issues Nature vs. Nurture Nature Hereditary information Received from parents at conceptionNurturePhysical and social forcesInfluences biological and psychological development
6 Stability and Plasticity Persistence of individual differencesLifelong patterns established by early experiencesPlasticityDevelopment is open to lifelong changeChange occurs based on influential experiences
8 Periods of Development Infancy and toddlerhood PrenatalConception to birthInfancy and toddlerhoodBirth–2 yearsEarly childhood2–6 yearsMiddle childhood6–11 yearsAdolescence11–18 yearsEarly adulthood18–40 yearsMiddle adulthood40–65 yearsLate adulthood65 years–death
9 Major Domains of Development Figure 1.2 Major domains of developmentFigure 1.2
15 Freud’s Three Parts of the Personality IdLargest portion of the mindSource of biological needs/desiresEgoConscious, rational part of personalityEmerges in early infancyRedirects id impulses in acceptable waysSuperegoThe conscienceDevelops from ages 3 to 6 through interactions with caregivers
17 Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Basic trust vs. mistrustBirth–1 yearAutonomy vs. shame/doubt1–3 yearsInitiative vs. guilt3–6 yearsIndustry vs. inferiority6–11 yearsIdentity vs. role confusionAdolescenceIntimacy vs. isolationEarly adulthoodGenerativity vs. stagnationMiddle adulthoodIntegrity vs. despairLate adulthood
18 Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory Social learning theory ClassicalconditioningStimulus–responseOperantReinforcers and punishmentsSocial learning theorySocial-cognitive approach
19 Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory Contributions:behavior modificationmodeling, observational learningLimitations:narrow view of environmental influencesunderestimates individual’s active role
20 Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory Children actively construct knowledge by manipulating and exploring their world.Mental structures adapt to better fit with environment.Development moves through four broad stages.
22 Information Processing View of the human mind as a symbol-manipulating systemDevelopment as a continuous processUse of rigorous research methodsLittle insight into creativity or imagination
23 Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Relationship of brain changes to cognitive processing and behavior patternsBrings together researchers frompsychologybiologyneurosciencemedicinePractical applications
29 Common Research Methods Systematic observation:Naturalistic observationStructured observationSelf-reports:Clinical interviewStructured interview, questionnaires, testsClinical, or case study, methodEthnography
30 Systematic Observation Naturalistic ObservationObservation of behavior in natural contextsReflects participants’ everyday livesStructured ObservationObservation of behavior in laboratoryGives all participants opportunity to display behavior
31 Self-Reports Clinical Interview Structured Interview Conversational styleProbes for participant’s viewpointProvides large amount of information in brief periodStructured InterviewAll participants are asked the same questions in the same wayPermits comparisons and efficient data collection
32 Clinical/Case Study Method Full picture of individual’s psychological functioningCombines information frominterviewsobservationstest scores
34 General Research Designs CorrelationalReveals relationships between participants’ characteristics and behaviorDoes not permit cause-and-effect inferencesExperimentalParticipants randomly assigned to treatment conditionsDetects cause-and-effect relationshipsFindings may not apply in real-world conditions
35 Experimental Design Independent Variable Dependent Variable Manipulated by experimenterExpected to cause changes in another variableDependent VariableMeasured, but not manipulated, by experimenterExpected to be influenced by independent variable
37 Modified Experiments Natural/Quasi-Experiment Field Experiment Compares existing differences in treatmentParticipant groups matched as much as possibleField ExperimentConducted in natural settingsCapitalizes on existing opportunities for random assignment
38 Developmental Research Designs LongitudinalSame group studied at different timesCross-sectionalDifferent groups studied at the same timeSequentialCompares similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies (sequences)
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