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Chapter 1 History, Theory, and Research Strategies

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1 Chapter 1 History, Theory, and Research Strategies

2 Developmental Science
The study of constancy and change throughout the lifespan © Blend Images/Shutterstock

3 The Field of Developmental Science
Scientific Applied Interdisciplinary © Irina Magrelo/Shutterstock

4 Basic Issues in Development
Continuous or discontinuous? One course of development or many? Relative influence of nature and nurture?

5 Basic Issues Nature vs. Nurture Nature Hereditary information
Received from parents at conception Nurture Physical and social forces Influences biological and psychological development

6 Stability and Plasticity
Persistence of individual differences Lifelong patterns established by early experiences Plasticity Development is open to lifelong change Change occurs based on influential experiences

7 Lifespan Perspective Development is lifelong
multidimensional and multidirectional highly plastic influenced by multiple, interacting forces © Intellistudies/Shutterstock

8 Periods of Development Infancy and toddlerhood
Prenatal Conception to birth Infancy and toddlerhood Birth–2 years Early childhood 2–6 years Middle childhood 6–11 years Adolescence 11–18 years Early adulthood 18–40 years Middle adulthood 40–65 years Late adulthood 65 years–death

9 Major Domains of Development
Figure 1.2 Major domains of development Figure 1.2

10 Influences on Development
Multiple, interacting forces: Age-graded History-graded Nonnormative © auremar/Shutterstock

11 Resilience Ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development Factors in resilience: personal characteristics warm parental relationship social support outside family community resources and opportunities © iofoto/Shutterstock

12 Lifespan View of Development
Figure 1.3 The lifespan view of development Figure 1.3

13 Scientific Beginnings
Darwin Theory of evolution Hall, Gesell Normative approach Binet Mental testing movement

14 Psychoanalytic Perspective Freud and Erikson
Emphasis on individual’s unique life history Conflicts between biological drives and social expectations © szefei/Shutterstock

15 Freud’s Three Parts of the Personality
Id Largest portion of the mind Source of biological needs/desires Ego Conscious, rational part of personality Emerges in early infancy Redirects id impulses in acceptable ways Superego The conscience Develops from ages 3 to 6 through interactions with caregivers

16 Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital © GWImages/Shutterstock

17 Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
Basic trust vs. mistrust Birth–1 year Autonomy vs. shame/doubt 1–3 years Initiative vs. guilt 3–6 years Industry vs. inferiority 6–11 years Identity vs. role confusion Adolescence Intimacy vs. isolation Early adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation Middle adulthood Integrity vs. despair Late adulthood

18 Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory Social learning theory
Classical conditioning Stimulus–response Operant Reinforcers and punishments Social learning theory Social-cognitive approach

19 Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory
Contributions: behavior modification modeling, observational learning Limitations: narrow view of environmental influences underestimates individual’s active role

20 Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory
Children actively construct knowledge by manipulating and exploring their world. Mental structures adapt to better fit with environment. Development moves through four broad stages.

21 Piaget’s Stages Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operational
Formal operational © Odua Images/Shutterstock

22 Information Processing
View of the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system Development as a continuous process Use of rigorous research methods Little insight into creativity or imagination

23 Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Relationship of brain changes to cognitive processing and behavior patterns Brings together researchers from psychology biology neuroscience medicine Practical applications

24 Ethology Adaptive value and evolutionary history of behavior
Acquisition of adaptive behaviors: critical period sensitive period © Nick Biemans/Shutterstock

25 Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
Adaptive value of cognitive emotional social competencies as they change with age Person–environment system throughout the lifespan

26 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Transmission to the next generation of a culture’s values beliefs customs skills Cooperative dialogues between children and more expert members of society © Andresr/Shutterstock

27 Ecological Systems Theory
Figure 1.5 Structure of the environment in ecological systems theory Figure 1.5

28 Ecological Systems Theory
Layers of the environment: microsystem mesosystem exosystem macrosystem Chronosystem: temporal dimension © Zurijeta/Shutterstock

29 Common Research Methods
Systematic observation: Naturalistic observation Structured observation Self-reports: Clinical interview Structured interview, questionnaires, tests Clinical, or case study, method Ethnography

30 Systematic Observation
Naturalistic Observation Observation of behavior in natural contexts Reflects participants’ everyday lives Structured Observation Observation of behavior in laboratory Gives all participants opportunity to display behavior

31 Self-Reports Clinical Interview Structured Interview
Conversational style Probes for participant’s viewpoint Provides large amount of information in brief period Structured Interview All participants are asked the same questions in the same way Permits comparisons and efficient data collection

32 Clinical/Case Study Method
Full picture of individual’s psychological functioning Combines information from interviews observations test scores

33 Ethnography Participant observation of culture or social group
Rich, descriptive insights Does not permit generalization from findings © skyfish/Shutterstock

34 General Research Designs
Correlational Reveals relationships between participants’ characteristics and behavior Does not permit cause-and-effect inferences Experimental Participants randomly assigned to treatment conditions Detects cause-and-effect relationships Findings may not apply in real-world conditions

35 Experimental Design Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Manipulated by experimenter Expected to cause changes in another variable Dependent Variable Measured, but not manipulated, by experimenter Expected to be influenced by independent variable

36 Random Assignment Unbiased procedure used to assign participants to treatment conditions Increases chances that characteristics will be equally distributed across conditions © iofoto/Shutterstock

37 Modified Experiments Natural/Quasi-Experiment Field Experiment
Compares existing differences in treatment Participant groups matched as much as possible Field Experiment Conducted in natural settings Capitalizes on existing opportunities for random assignment

38 Developmental Research Designs
Longitudinal Same group studied at different times Cross-sectional Different groups studied at the same time Sequential Compares similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies (sequences)

39 Rights of Research Participants
Protection from harm Informed consent Privacy Knowledge of results Beneficial treatments © Goodluz/Shutterstock

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