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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Chapter 1 History,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Chapter 1 History,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Chapter 1 History, Theory, and Research Strategies

2 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk The study of constancy and change throughout the lifespan © Blend Images/Shutterstock Developmental Science

3 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Scientific  Applied  Interdisciplinary © Irina Magrelo/Shutterstock The Field of Developmental Science

4 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Continuous or discontinuous?  One course of development or many?  Relative influence of nature and nurture? Basic Issues in Development

5 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Nature  Hereditary information  Received from parents at conception Nurture  Physical and social forces  Influences biological and psychological development Basic Issues Nature vs. Nurture

6 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Stability  Persistence of individual differences  Lifelong patterns established by early experiences Plasticity  Development is open to lifelong change  Change occurs based on influential experiences Stability and Plasticity

7 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Development is  lifelong  multidimensional and multidirectional  highly plastic  influenced by multiple, interacting forces © Intellistudies/Shutterstock Lifespan Perspective

8 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Periods of Development PrenatalConception to birth Infancy and toddlerhoodBirth–2 years Early childhood2–6 years Middle childhood6–11 years Adolescence11–18 years Early adulthood18–40 years Middle adulthood40–65 years Late adulthood65 years–death

9 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Major Domains of Development Figure 1.2

10 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Multiple, interacting forces:  Age-graded  History-graded  Nonnormative © auremar/Shutterstock Influences on Development

11 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development  Factors in resilience:  personal characteristics  warm parental relationship  social support outside family  community resources and opportunities Resilience © iofoto/Shutterstock

12 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Lifespan View of Development Figure 1.3

13 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Scientific Beginnings Darwin Theory of evolution Hall, Gesell Normative approach Binet Mental testing movement

14 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Emphasis on individual’s unique life history  Conflicts between biological drives and social expectations Psychoanalytic Perspective Freud and Erikson © szefei/Shutterstock

15 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Freud’s Three Parts of the Personality Id  Largest portion of the mind  Source of biological needs/desires Ego  Conscious, rational part of personality  Emerges in early infancy  Redirects id impulses in acceptable ways Superego  The conscience  Develops from ages 3 to 6 through interactions with caregivers

16 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Oral  Anal  Phallic  Latency  Genital © GWImages/Shutterstock Freud’s Psychosexual Stages

17 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Basic trust vs. mistrustBirth–1 year Autonomy vs. shame/doubt1–3 years Initiative vs. guilt3–6 years Industry vs. inferiority6–11 years Identity vs. role confusionAdolescence Intimacy vs. isolationEarly adulthood Generativity vs. stagnationMiddle adulthood Integrity vs. despairLate adulthood

18 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory Classical conditioning Stimulus–response Operant conditioning Reinforcers and punishments Social learning theory Social-cognitive approach

19 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Contributions:  behavior modification  modeling, observational learning  Limitations:  narrow view of environmental influences  underestimates individual’s active role Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory

20 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Children actively construct knowledge by manipulating and exploring their world.  Mental structures adapt to better fit with environment.  Development moves through four broad stages. Piaget’s Cognitive- Developmental Theory

21 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk © Odua Images/Shutterstock Piaget’s Stages  Sensorimotor  Preoperational  Concrete operational  Formal operational

22 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  View of the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system  Development as a continuous process  Use of rigorous research methods  Little insight into creativity or imagination Information Processing

23 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Relationship of brain changes to cognitive processing and behavior patterns  Brings together researchers from  psychology  biology  neuroscience  medicine  Practical applications Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

24 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Adaptive value and evolutionary history of behavior  Acquisition of adaptive behaviors:  critical period  sensitive period © Nick Biemans/Shutterstock Ethology

25 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Adaptive value of  cognitive  emotional  social competencies as they change with age  Person–environment system throughout the lifespan Evolutionary Developmental Psychology

26 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Transmission to the next generation of a culture’s  values  beliefs  customs  skills  Cooperative dialogues between children and more expert members of society © Andresr/Shutterstock Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

27 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Ecological Systems Theory Figure 1.5

28 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Layers of the environment:  microsystem  mesosystem  exosystem  macrosystem  Chronosystem: temporal dimension © Zurijeta/Shutterstock Ecological Systems Theory

29 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Systematic observation:  Naturalistic observation  Structured observation  Self-reports:  Clinical interview  Structured interview, questionnaires, tests  Clinical, or case study, method  Ethnography Common Research Methods

30 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Naturalistic Observation  Observation of behavior in natural contexts  Reflects participants’ everyday lives Structured Observation  Observation of behavior in laboratory  Gives all participants opportunity to display behavior Systematic Observation

31 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Clinical Interview  Conversational style  Probes for participant’s viewpoint  Provides large amount of information in brief period Structured Interview  All participants are asked the same questions in the same way  Permits comparisons and efficient data collection Self-Reports

32 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Full picture of individual’s psychological functioning  Combines information from  interviews  observations  test scores Clinical/Case Study Method

33 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Participant observation of culture or social group  Rich, descriptive insights  Does not permit generalization from findings © skyfish/Shutterstock Ethnography

34 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Correlational  Reveals relationships between participants’ characteristics and behavior  Does not permit cause-and-effect inferences Experimental  Participants randomly assigned to treatment conditions  Detects cause-and- effect relationships  Findings may not apply in real-world conditions General Research Designs

35 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Independent Variable  Manipulated by experimenter  Expected to cause changes in another variable Dependent Variable  Measured, but not manipulated, by experimenter  Expected to be influenced by independent variable Experimental Design

36 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Unbiased procedure used to assign participants to treatment conditions  Increases chances that characteristics will be equally distributed across conditions Random Assignment © iofoto/Shutterstock

37 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Field Experiment  Conducted in natural settings  Capitalizes on existing opportunities for random assignment Natural/Quasi- Experiment  Compares existing differences in treatment  Participant groups matched as much as possible Modified Experiments

38 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Developmental Research Designs Longitudinal Same group studied at different times Cross-sectional Different groups studied at the same time Sequential Compares similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies (sequences)

39 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk  Protection from harm  Informed consent  Privacy  Knowledge of results  Beneficial treatments Rights of Research Participants © Goodluz/Shutterstock


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