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Theories of Development

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Presentation on theme: "Theories of Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories of Development
Chapter 2: Theories of Development

2 Psychosexual Theories
Learning Theories Cognitive Theories Biological and Ecological Theories Comparing Theories In this chapter

3 An Overview Major families of theoretical perspectives Psychoanalytic
Learning Cognitive Other theoretical trends Biological Ecological

4 Psychoanalytic Theories Sigmund Freud
Psychosexual theory: Internal drives and emotions influence behavior. Patient memories used as primary source material Three personality types: id, ego, superego Sexual feelings are part of personality development. Libido: unconscious process; internal drive for physical pleasure Defense mechanisms

5 Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
At each stage, the libido centers on different part of body; Figure 2.1 (p. 26)

6 Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson (Neo-Freudian)
Psychosocial theory: Development influenced by common cultural demands and internal drives Each psychosocial stage requires solution of a crisis. Healthy development requires a favorable ratio of positive to negative experiences.

7 Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson (Neo-Freudian)
Stages First four stages form adult personality foundation Childhood-adulthood transition influential Ages Adult stages not strongly tied to age

8 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Development continues throughout the entire lifespan. Each new crisis appears because of changes in social demands that accompany changes in age.

9 Learning Theories Classical Conditioning: Ivan Pavlov
Classical Conditioning: Learning process that occurs through associations between environmental stimulus and naturally occurring stimulus Reflex: Stimulus–response connection Learned: Conditioned stimulus elicits conditioned response. Reflex Stimulus–Response connection Unlearned Unconditioned Stimulus elicits Unconditioned Response. Food automatically elicits salivation. Learned Conditioned Stimulus elicits Conditioned Response. Smell of food (bacon) elicits salivation.

10 Learning Theories Operant Conditioning: B.F. Skinner
Operant conditioning: Deals with modification of voluntary behavior Behaviors dependent on reinforcement Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction Positive and negative reinforcement interact in complex ways in real life.

11 Learning Theories Hints for Parents and Caregivers
Positive and negative reinforcement interact in complex ways in real life. The best chance for behavioral change exists when an appropriate consequence administered first after the behavior occurs.

12 Learning Theories Social Cognitive Theory: Albert Bandura
Observational learning or modeling: Learning results from seeing a model reinforced or punished for behavior. Dependent on four factors: Attention Memory Physical capabilities Motivation Learning from model not always automatic Self-efficacy

13 Learning Theories Social Cognitive Theory: Self-Efficacy
Perceived self-efficacy: People's beliefs about their capabilities to produce effects Learning Influenced by perceived similarity to model Not limited to overt behavior Comes also from ideas, expectations, internal standards, and self-concepts Learning from model not always automatic

14 Cognitive Theories Jean Piaget
Piaget’s cognitive theory: Development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses into changes in mental operations. Scheme Assimilation Accommodation Equilibration Scheme internal cognitive structure Assimilation process of using schemes to make sense of experiences Accommodation changing a scheme to incorporate new information Equilibration balancing assimilation and accommodation

15 Cognitive Theories Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Stages
Sensorimotor Stage Preoperational Stage Concrete Operational Stage Formal Operational Stage Evolution of Logical Thinking See Table 2.5 Sequential, universal, invariant The rate of development differs for individual children.

16 Cognitive Theories Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory
Socio-cultural theory: Complex forms of thinking have their origins in social interactions, not private explorations. Children learn new cognitive skills guided by a more skilled partner. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Scaffolding

17 Cognitive Theories Importance of Assisted Discovery
Assisted discovery: Child integrates results of independent discoveries with new knowledge taught in systematic and structured way. What are the educational applications of this kind of learning?

18 Cognitive Theories Importance of Assisted Discovery
Educational Applications Supports active exploration opportunities Discovery of what knowledge, skills, and understandings have not yet surfaced for learner but are on edge of emergence

19 Cognitive Theories Information-Processing Theory
Information-processing theory: Computer used as model to explain how mind manages information Three-stage theory of memory Sensory memory Short-term or working memory Long-term memory

20 Figure 2.2 The Information-Processing System

21 Cognitive Theories Neo-Piagetian Theories
Piagetian information-processing hybrid Uses IP to explain Piaget’s stages Expands (not contradicts) Piaget’s theory Agrees that children's thinking reflects developing internal mental structures Draws on linguistic theories about content domain specificity of cognition

22 ? ? Questions To Ponder Give an example each of a positive reinforcement and a punishment in your work or academic life. Looking at ecological systems theory, describe your personal exosystem, macrosystem, and microsystem influences.

23 Biological Theories Behavioral Genetics
Behavioral genetics: Examines genetic underpinnings of behavioral phenotypes Can you think of questions that might be addressed using this theoretical perspective? Heredity affects a broad range of traits and behaviors, and its influence is seen throughout the lifespan. Some of the questions addressed: How does heredity affects individual differences? How are similar traits of related people influenced by genes? Can a child’s pattern of inherited qualities influence how she behaves with others?

24 Did you list twin studies in your response?
Figure 2.3 IQs of Fraternal and Identical Twins Look at these findings from several studies of Dutch twins. What does this tell you about the influence of heredity and age?

25 Other Biological Theories Ethology and Sociobiology
Ethology: Examines genetically determined mechanisms that promote survival through natural selection Imprinting Sociobiology: Application of evolutionary theory to social behavior “Genetic selfishness” Development results from the degree to which genes help or hinder individuals’ efforts to adapt to the environment. Emphasizes genes that aid in group survival

26 Bioecological Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner
Bioecological theory: Explains development in terms of relationships between people and their environments Contexts Macrosystem Exosystem Microsystem Mesosystem Biological context Biological context: child’s makeup and developmental stage

27 Place yourself in the center of the model.
Who or what would you place in each ring? What prompted your choices? Figure 2.4 Bronfenbrenner’s Contexts of Development

28 Why asking which theory is RIGHT may be wrong!
Instead of right/wrong, try useful/not useful. Evaluation of usefulness of each theory Generate predictions that can be tested. Heuristic value Practical value Explanation of basic developmental facts Generate predictions that can be tested. Heuristic value: degree to which it stimulates research Practical value Explain the basic facts of development.

29 Multiple Theoretical Approaches Eclecticism
Interdisciplinary; builds on ideas from multiple sources Avoids rigid adherence to single theory Contributes to development of more comprehensive theories Contributes to development of more comprehensive theories to support future research questions and hypotheses

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