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Chapter 2: Theories of Development. In this chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Theories of Development. In this chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2: Theories of Development

2 In this chapter

3 An Overview Major families of theoretical perspectives  Psychoanalytic  Learning  Cognitive Other theoretical trends  Biological  Ecological

4 Psychoanalytic Theories Sigmund Freud Psychosexual theory: Internal drives and emotions influence behavior. Patient memories used as primary source material Three personality types: id, ego, superego Sexual feelings are part of personality development.

5 Freud’s Psychosexual Stages

6 Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson (Neo-Freudian) Psychosocial theory: Development influenced by common cultural demands and internal drives  Each psychosocial stage requires solution of a crisis.  Healthy development requires a favorable ratio of positive to negative experiences.

7 Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson (Neo-Freudian) Stages  First four stages form adult personality foundation  Childhood-adulthood transition influential Ages  Adult stages not strongly tied to age

8 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

9 Learning Theories Classical Conditioning: Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning: Learning process that occurs through associations between environmental stimulus and naturally occurring stimulus Reflex: Stimulus–response connection Learned: Conditioned stimulus elicits conditioned response.

10 Learning Theories Operant Conditioning: B.F. Skinner Operant conditioning: Deals with modification of voluntary behavior  Behaviors dependent on reinforcement Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement  Punishment  Extinction

11 Learning Theories Hints for Parents and Caregivers  Positive and negative reinforcement interact in complex ways in real life.  The best chance for behavioral change exists when an appropriate consequence administered first after the behavior occurs.

12 Learning Theories Social Cognitive Theory: Albert Bandura Observational learning or modeling: Learning results from seeing a model reinforced or punished for behavior. Dependent on four factors:  Attention  Memory  Physical capabilities  Motivation

13 Learning Theories Social Cognitive Theory: Self-Efficacy Perceived self-efficacy: People's beliefs about their capabilities to produce effects Learning  Influenced by perceived similarity to model  Not limited to overt behavior  Comes also from ideas, expectations, internal standards, and self-concepts

14 Cognitive Theories Jean Piaget Piaget’s cognitive theory: Development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses into changes in mental operations.  Scheme  Assimilation  Accommodation  Equilibration

15 Cognitive Theories Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Stages Evolution of Logical Thinking The rate of development differs for individual children.

16 Cognitive Theories Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory Socio-cultural theory: Complex forms of thinking have their origins in social interactions, not private explorations. Children learn new cognitive skills guided by a more skilled partner.  Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)  Scaffolding

17 Cognitive Theories Importance of Assisted Discovery Assisted discovery: Child integrates results of independent discoveries with new knowledge taught in systematic and structured way. What are the educational applications of this kind of learning?

18 Cognitive Theories Importance of Assisted Discovery Educational Applications  Supports active exploration opportunities  Discovery of what knowledge, skills, and understandings have not yet surfaced for learner but are on edge of emergence

19 Cognitive Theories Information-Processing Theory Information-processing theory: Computer used as model to explain how mind manages information Three-stage theory of memory  Sensory memory  Short-term or working memory  Long-term memory

20 Figure 2.2 The Information-Processing System

21 Cognitive Theories Neo-Piagetian Theories Piagetian information-processing hybrid  Uses IP to explain Piaget’s stages  Expands (not contradicts) Piaget’s theory  Agrees that children's thinking reflects developing internal mental structures  Draws on linguistic theories about content domain specificity of cognition

22 Give an example each of a positive reinforcement and a punishment in your work or academic life. Looking at ecological systems theory, describe your personal exosystem, macrosystem, and microsystem influences. Questions To Ponder

23 Biological Theories Behavioral Genetics Behavioral genetics: Examines genetic underpinnings of behavioral phenotypes Can you think of questions that might be addressed using this theoretical perspective?

24 Did you list twin studies in your response? Look at these findings from several studies of Dutch twins. What does this tell you about the influence of heredity and age? Figure 2.3 IQs of Fraternal and Identical Twins

25 Other Biological Theories Ethology and Sociobiology Ethology: Examines genetically determined mechanisms that promote survival through natural selection  Imprinting Sociobiology: Application of evolutionary theory to social behavior  “Genetic selfishness”

26 Bioecological Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner Bioecological theory: Explains development in terms of relationships between people and their environments Contexts  Macrosystem  Exosystem  Microsystem  Mesosystem  Biological context

27 Place yourself in the center of the model. Figure 2.4 Bronfenbrenner’s Contexts of Development Who or what would you place in each ring? What prompted your choices?

28 Why asking which theory is RIGHT may be wrong!  Instead of right/wrong, try useful/not useful.  Evaluation of usefulness of each theory Generate predictions that can be tested. Heuristic value Practical value Explanation of basic developmental facts

29 Multiple Theoretical Approaches Eclecticism  Interdisciplinary; builds on ideas from multiple sources  Avoids rigid adherence to single theory  Contributes to development of more comprehensive theories

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