Presentation on theme: "Theories of Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Theories of Development Chapter 2:Theories of Development
2Psychosexual Theories Learning TheoriesCognitive TheoriesBiological and Ecological TheoriesComparing TheoriesIn this chapter
3An Overview Major families of theoretical perspectives Psychoanalytic LearningCognitiveOther theoretical trendsBiologicalEcological
4Psychoanalytic Theories Sigmund Freud Psychosexual theory: Internal drives and emotions influence behavior. Patient memories used as primary source material Three personality types: id, ego, superego Sexual feelings are part of personality development.Libido: unconscious process; internal drive for physical pleasureDefense mechanisms
5Freud’s Psychosexual Stages At each stage, the libido centers on different part of body; Figure 2.1 (p. 26)
6Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson (Neo-Freudian) Psychosocial theory: Development influenced by common cultural demands and internal drivesEach psychosocial stage requires solution of a crisis.Healthy development requires a favorable ratio of positive to negative experiences.
7Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson (Neo-Freudian) StagesFirst four stages form adult personality foundationChildhood-adulthood transition influentialAgesAdult stages not strongly tied to age
8Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Development continues throughout the entire lifespan.Each new crisis appears because of changes in social demands that accompany changes in age.
9Learning Theories Classical Conditioning: Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning: Learning process that occurs through associations between environmental stimulus and naturally occurring stimulus Reflex: Stimulus–response connection Learned: Conditioned stimulus elicits conditioned response.Reflex Stimulus–Response connectionUnlearnedUnconditioned Stimulus elicits Unconditioned Response.Food automatically elicits salivation.LearnedConditioned Stimulus elicits Conditioned Response.Smell of food (bacon) elicits salivation.
10Learning Theories Operant Conditioning: B.F. Skinner Operant conditioning: Deals with modification of voluntary behaviorBehaviors dependent on reinforcementPositive reinforcementNegative reinforcementPunishmentExtinctionPositive and negative reinforcement interact in complex ways in real life.
11Learning Theories Hints for Parents and Caregivers Positive and negative reinforcement interact in complex ways in real life.The best chance for behavioral change exists when an appropriate consequence administered first after the behavior occurs.
12Learning Theories Social Cognitive Theory: Albert Bandura Observational learning or modeling: Learning results from seeing a model reinforced or punished for behavior.Dependent on four factors:AttentionMemoryPhysical capabilitiesMotivationLearning from model not always automaticSelf-efficacy
13Learning Theories Social Cognitive Theory: Self-Efficacy Perceived self-efficacy: People's beliefs about their capabilities to produce effectsLearningInfluenced by perceived similarity to modelNot limited to overt behaviorComes also from ideas, expectations, internal standards, and self-conceptsLearning from model not always automatic
14Cognitive Theories Jean Piaget Piaget’s cognitive theory: Development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses into changes in mental operations.SchemeAssimilationAccommodationEquilibrationSchemeinternal cognitive structureAssimilationprocess of using schemes to make sense of experiencesAccommodationchanging a scheme to incorporate new informationEquilibrationbalancing assimilation and accommodation
15Cognitive Theories Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Stages Sensorimotor StagePreoperational StageConcrete Operational StageFormal Operational StageEvolution of Logical ThinkingSee Table 2.5Sequential, universal, invariantThe rate of development differs for individual children.
16Cognitive Theories Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory Socio-cultural theory: Complex forms of thinking have their origins in social interactions, not private explorations.Children learn new cognitive skills guided by a more skilled partner.Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)Scaffolding
17Cognitive Theories Importance of Assisted Discovery Assisted discovery: Child integrates results of independent discoveries with new knowledge taught in systematic and structured way. What are the educational applications of this kind of learning?
18Cognitive Theories Importance of Assisted Discovery Educational ApplicationsSupports active exploration opportunitiesDiscovery of what knowledge, skills, and understandings have not yet surfaced for learner but are on edge of emergence
19Cognitive Theories Information-Processing Theory Information-processing theory: Computer used as model to explain how mind manages informationThree-stage theory of memorySensory memoryShort-term or working memoryLong-term memory
21Cognitive Theories Neo-Piagetian Theories Piagetian information-processing hybridUses IP to explain Piaget’s stagesExpands (not contradicts) Piaget’s theoryAgrees that children's thinking reflects developing internal mental structuresDraws on linguistic theories about content domain specificity of cognition
22??Questions To PonderGive an example each of a positive reinforcement and a punishment in your work or academic life. Looking at ecological systems theory, describe your personal exosystem, macrosystem, and microsystem influences.
23Biological Theories Behavioral Genetics Behavioral genetics: Examines genetic underpinnings of behavioral phenotypes Can you think of questions that might be addressed using this theoretical perspective?Heredity affects a broad range of traits and behaviors, and its influence is seen throughout the lifespan.Some of the questions addressed:How does heredity affects individual differences?How are similar traits of related people influenced by genes?Can a child’s pattern of inherited qualities influence how she behaves with others?
24Did you list twin studies in your response? Figure 2.3 IQs of Fraternal and Identical TwinsLook at these findings from several studies of Dutch twins. What does this tell you about the influence of heredity and age?
25Other Biological Theories Ethology and Sociobiology Ethology: Examines genetically determined mechanisms that promote survival through natural selectionImprintingSociobiology: Application of evolutionary theory to social behavior“Genetic selfishness”Development results from the degree to which genes help or hinder individuals’ efforts to adapt to the environment.Emphasizes genes that aid in group survival
26Bioecological Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner Bioecological theory: Explains development in terms of relationships between people and their environmentsContextsMacrosystemExosystemMicrosystemMesosystemBiological contextBiological context: child’s makeup and developmental stage
27Place yourself in the center of the model. Who or what would you place in each ring?What prompted your choices?Figure 2.4 Bronfenbrenner’s Contexts of Development
28Why asking which theory is RIGHT may be wrong! Instead of right/wrong, try useful/not useful.Evaluation of usefulness of each theoryGenerate predictions that can be tested.Heuristic valuePractical valueExplanation of basic developmental factsGenerate predictions that can be tested.Heuristic value: degree to which it stimulates researchPractical valueExplain the basic facts of development.
29Multiple Theoretical Approaches Eclecticism Interdisciplinary; builds on ideas from multiple sourcesAvoids rigid adherence to single theoryContributes to development of more comprehensive theoriesContributes to development of more comprehensive theories to support future research questions and hypotheses