3Lifespan human development A field of study that aims to understand constancy & change in physical, cognitive, social, & emotional factors throughout the lifespan.
4What do you think?Development is continuous, gradual progression, with new abilities, skills, & knowledge gradually added at a relatively uniform pace.ORDevelopment occurs at different rates, alternating between periods of little change and periods of abrupt, rapid change.
5Basic issues Continuous or discontinuous development? Quantitative - adding on more or more complex skillsQualitative – new skills emerge at particular periods
6What do you think?Humans everywhere follow the same general sequence of development.OREach human passes through a unique course of development.
7Basic issues One course of development or many? Universal – basic process for everyone; differences are simply variations in basic processContext-specific - unique process for everyone; differences result from different environments
8What do you think?Human intelligence is determined almost exclusively by genetic factors.ORHuman intelligence is largely the result of experiential factors.
9Basic issues Nature or Nurture? Are kids born bad?Nature – human development is biologically (genetically) determinedNurture - the physical and social environment influence human developmentContemporary developmental psychologists say “both”
10When do humans stop developing? Traditional population pyramid: more children & youngProjected population pyramid: equal young & old
11Lifespan Perspective Paul Baltes (1987) Max Planck Institute for Human Development**Table 1.5: Major Theories of Human Development**
12Development as lifelong (**Table 1.1**) PeriodApproximate age rangePrenatal Conception to birthInfancy & toddlerhood birth – 2 yearsEarly childhood 2-6 yearsMiddle childhood yearsAdolescence yearsEarly adulthood yearsMiddle adulthood yearsLate adulthood 60 years-death
13What abilities increase with age? What abilities decline with age?
14Multidirectional & multidimensional Multidirectionality: decline & growth at all points in lifespandevelopment doesn’t occur in one directionratio shifts with age
15ratio between gains & losses shifts across lifespan Losses > Gains
16Multidirectional & multidimensional Multidirectionality: decline & growth at all points in lifespandevelopment doesn’t occur in one directionratio shifts with ageMultidimensionality: pattern of decline & growth varies across & within domains
17gains & losses depend on domain Emotional understandingVocabularyMemoryAbility to learn foreign language
18Plasticity Humans have a range of functioning Natural occurring plasticity through compensationPlasticity through trainingLess plasticity with increasing age
19Embedded in multiple contexts Age-graded influences:related to chronological ageHistory-graded influences:related to generational (cohort) eventsNonnormative influences:related to unique experiences
22Developmental psychology in the news… A scene from the violent video game Grand Theft Auto.January 18, 2006Can a violent video game called Grand Theft Auto be responsible for an 18-year-old, Devin Moore, murdering three people?
23“Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to increased aggression in adolescents.”
24General Research Designs Correlational design: see how two (or more) pre-existing variables are related+.20Sign: direction of relation+ variables move in same direction variables move in opposite directionCorrelation coefficientr =Number: strength of relation+.20-.09+.46Ranges 0 to 1: Closer to 1 stronger the relation
25Cannot make cause & effect conclusion What conclusions can we make?Cannot make cause & effect conclusionVideo GamesAggressive Behaviorr = +.20Personality Peer pressuredirectionality problem: do not know the direction of relationthird variable problem: other variable might account for relation
26“Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to (i. e “Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to (i.e., causes) increased aggression in adolescents.”
27General Research Designs Experimental design: manipulate variable to test the effects on outcome variableVariablesDependent (DV)Outcome variable(Aggressive behavior)
28General Research Designs Experimental design: manipulate variable to test the effects on outcome variableIndependent (IV)Manipulated variableVariablesGroup 1: nonviolent game Group 2: violent gameDependent (DV)Outcome variable(Aggressive behavior)
30What conclusions can we make? Independent (IV)Dependent (DV)Can make cause & effect conclusionBecause have random assignment to IVrules out confounds – other explanationswithout it, do not have a “true” experiment
31“Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to increased aggression in adolescents.”
32Developmental Research Designs Building blocks of ALL developmental researchVariablesMeasureEffects from…chronological ageAgeChanges in a personexperiences unique to a generationbirth yearCohorttime of measurementTimecircumstances during data collection
33Developmental Research Designs Cross-sectional: age & cohort vary, time constantTimeCohort2005199510199015198520r = +.30r = +.20r = +.10Can only conclude age differences
34Developmental Research Designs Longitudinal: age & time vary, cohort constantTimeCohort1995200020051985101520r = +.30r = +.20r = +.10Can conclude age change
35Advantages & Disadvantages LongitudinalDisadvantagesDesignAdvantagesCross-sectionalPractical & quickAge differencesCohort effectTime effectsPractice effectsNonrandom drop-outLack of generalizabilityMeasures age changeWith all the problems, what should researchers do?
36Developmental Research Designs Sequential: combine cross-sectional & longitudinal designsTimeCohort2005201019951015199020198525Age change that generalizes to other cohortsAge & cohort effects can be teased apart
37Considered the “best” developmental research design…but hardly ever done?
38In-class Assignment 1The purpose of this assignment is to give you an opportunity to apply and practicewhat you have learned about general and developmental research designs.