Presentation on theme: "Lifespan Human Development PSY 223"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lifespan Human Development PSY 223 Dr. Nicole AleaMTWR 10:15-12:20SB 106
2 Syllabus & Course Materials available online at:
3 Lifespan human development A field of study that aims to understand constancy & change in physical, cognitive, social, & emotional factors throughout the lifespan.
4 What do you think?Development is continuous, gradual progression, with new abilities, skills, & knowledge gradually added at a relatively uniform pace.ORDevelopment occurs at different rates, alternating between periods of little change and periods of abrupt, rapid change.
5 Basic issues Continuous or discontinuous development? Quantitative - adding on more or more complex skillsQualitative – new skills emerge at particular periods
6 What do you think?Humans everywhere follow the same general sequence of development.OREach human passes through a unique course of development.
7 Basic issues One course of development or many? Universal – basic process for everyone; differences are simply variations in basic processContext-specific - unique process for everyone; differences result from different environments
8 What do you think?Human intelligence is determined almost exclusively by genetic factors.ORHuman intelligence is largely the result of experiential factors.
9 Basic issues Nature or Nurture? Are kids born bad?Nature – human development is biologically (genetically) determinedNurture - the physical and social environment influence human developmentContemporary developmental psychologists say “both”
10 When do humans stop developing? Traditional population pyramid: more children & youngProjected population pyramid: equal young & old
11 Lifespan Perspective Paul Baltes (1987) Max Planck Institute for Human Development**Table 1.5: Major Theories of Human Development**
12 Development as lifelong (**Table 1.1**) PeriodApproximate age rangePrenatal Conception to birthInfancy & toddlerhood birth – 2 yearsEarly childhood 2-6 yearsMiddle childhood yearsAdolescence yearsEarly adulthood yearsMiddle adulthood yearsLate adulthood 60 years-death
13 What abilities increase with age? What abilities decline with age?
14 Multidirectional & multidimensional Multidirectionality: decline & growth at all points in lifespandevelopment doesn’t occur in one directionratio shifts with age
15 ratio between gains & losses shifts across lifespan Losses > Gains
16 Multidirectional & multidimensional Multidirectionality: decline & growth at all points in lifespandevelopment doesn’t occur in one directionratio shifts with ageMultidimensionality: pattern of decline & growth varies across & within domains
17 gains & losses depend on domain Emotional understandingVocabularyMemoryAbility to learn foreign language
18 Plasticity Humans have a range of functioning Natural occurring plasticity through compensationPlasticity through trainingLess plasticity with increasing age
19 Embedded in multiple contexts Age-graded influences:related to chronological ageHistory-graded influences:related to generational (cohort) eventsNonnormative influences:related to unique experiences
22 Developmental psychology in the news… A scene from the violent video game Grand Theft Auto.January 18, 2006Can a violent video game called Grand Theft Auto be responsible for an 18-year-old, Devin Moore, murdering three people?
23 “Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to increased aggression in adolescents.”
24 General Research Designs Correlational design: see how two (or more) pre-existing variables are related+.20Sign: direction of relation+ variables move in same direction variables move in opposite directionCorrelation coefficientr =Number: strength of relation+.20-.09+.46Ranges 0 to 1: Closer to 1 stronger the relation
25 Cannot make cause & effect conclusion What conclusions can we make?Cannot make cause & effect conclusionVideo GamesAggressive Behaviorr = +.20Personality Peer pressuredirectionality problem: do not know the direction of relationthird variable problem: other variable might account for relation
26 “Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to (i. e “Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to (i.e., causes) increased aggression in adolescents.”
27 General Research Designs Experimental design: manipulate variable to test the effects on outcome variableVariablesDependent (DV)Outcome variable(Aggressive behavior)
28 General Research Designs Experimental design: manipulate variable to test the effects on outcome variableIndependent (IV)Manipulated variableVariablesGroup 1: nonviolent game Group 2: violent gameDependent (DV)Outcome variable(Aggressive behavior)
30 What conclusions can we make? Independent (IV)Dependent (DV)Can make cause & effect conclusionBecause have random assignment to IVrules out confounds – other explanationswithout it, do not have a “true” experiment
31 “Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to increased aggression in adolescents.”
32 Developmental Research Designs Building blocks of ALL developmental researchVariablesMeasureEffects from…chronological ageAgeChanges in a personexperiences unique to a generationbirth yearCohorttime of measurementTimecircumstances during data collection
33 Developmental Research Designs Cross-sectional: age & cohort vary, time constantTimeCohort2005199510199015198520r = +.30r = +.20r = +.10Can only conclude age differences
34 Developmental Research Designs Longitudinal: age & time vary, cohort constantTimeCohort1995200020051985101520r = +.30r = +.20r = +.10Can conclude age change
35 Advantages & Disadvantages LongitudinalDisadvantagesDesignAdvantagesCross-sectionalPractical & quickAge differencesCohort effectTime effectsPractice effectsNonrandom drop-outLack of generalizabilityMeasures age changeWith all the problems, what should researchers do?
36 Developmental Research Designs Sequential: combine cross-sectional & longitudinal designsTimeCohort2005201019951015199020198525Age change that generalizes to other cohortsAge & cohort effects can be teased apart
37 Considered the “best” developmental research design…but hardly ever done?
38 In-class Assignment 1The purpose of this assignment is to give you an opportunity to apply and practicewhat you have learned about general and developmental research designs.