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Lifespan Human Development PSY 223 MTWR 10:15-12:20 SB 106 Dr. Nicole Alea.

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Presentation on theme: "Lifespan Human Development PSY 223 MTWR 10:15-12:20 SB 106 Dr. Nicole Alea."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lifespan Human Development PSY 223 MTWR 10:15-12:20 SB 106 Dr. Nicole Alea

2 Syllabus & Course Materials available online at:

3 Lifespan human development A field of study that aims to understand constancy & change in physical, cognitive, social, & emotional factors throughout the lifespan.

4 What do you think? Development is continuous, gradual progression, with new abilities, skills, & knowledge gradually added at a relatively uniform pace. Development is continuous, gradual progression, with new abilities, skills, & knowledge gradually added at a relatively uniform pace.OR Development occurs at different rates, alternating between periods of little change and periods of abrupt, rapid change. Development occurs at different rates, alternating between periods of little change and periods of abrupt, rapid change.

5 Basic issues 1. Continuous or discontinuous development? Quantitative - adding on more or more complex skills Qualitative – new skills emerge at particular periods

6 What do you think? Humans everywhere follow the same general sequence of development. Humans everywhere follow the same general sequence of development.OR Each human passes through a unique course of development. Each human passes through a unique course of development.

7 Basic issues 2. One course of development or many? Universal – basic process for everyone; differences are simply variations in basic process Universal – basic process for everyone; differences are simply variations in basic process Context-specific - unique process for everyone; differences result from different environments Context-specific - unique process for everyone; differences result from different environments

8 What do you think? Human intelligence is determined almost exclusively by genetic factors. Human intelligence is determined almost exclusively by genetic factors.OR Human intelligence is largely the result of experiential factors. Human intelligence is largely the result of experiential factors.

9 Basic issues 3. Nature or Nurture? Nature – human development is biologically (genetically) determined Nature – human development is biologically (genetically) determined Nurture - the physical and social environment influence human development Nurture - the physical and social environment influence human development Contemporary developmental psychologists say “both” Contemporary developmental psychologists say “both” Are kids born bad?

10 When do humans stop developing? Traditional population pyramid: more children & young Traditional population pyramid: more children & young Projected population pyramid: equal young & old Projected population pyramid: equal young & old

11 Lifespan Perspective Paul Baltes (1987) Max Planck Institute for Human Development **Table 1.5: Major Theories of Human Development**

12 1.Development as lifelong (**Table 1.1**) Period Approximate age range Prenatal Conception to birth Infancy & toddlerhoodbirth – 2 years Early childhood2-6 years Middle childhood6-11 years Adolescence11-20 years Early adulthood20-40 years Middle adulthood40-60 years Late adulthood60 years-death

13 What abilities decline with age? What abilities increase with age?

14 Multidirectionality: decline & growth at all points in lifespan Multidirectionality: decline & growth at all points in lifespan –development doesn’t occur in one direction –ratio shifts with age 2.Multidirectional & multidimensional

15 ratio between gains & losses shifts across lifespan Gains > Losses Losses > Gains

16 Multidirectionality: decline & growth at all points in lifespan Multidirectionality: decline & growth at all points in lifespan –development doesn’t occur in one direction –ratio shifts with age Multidimensionality: pattern of decline & growth varies across & within domains Multidimensionality: pattern of decline & growth varies across & within domains 2.Multidirectional & multidimensional

17 Vocabulary Memory Ability to learn foreign language Emotional understanding gains & losses depend on domain

18 Natural occurring plasticity through compensation Natural occurring plasticity through compensation Plasticity through training Plasticity through training Less plasticity with increasing age Less plasticity with increasing age 3.Plasticity Humans have a range of functioning Humans have a range of functioning

19 4.Embedded in multiple contexts Age-graded influences: Age-graded influences: related to chronological age History-graded influences: History-graded influences: related to generational (cohort) events Nonnormative influences: Nonnormative influences: related to unique experiences

20

21 Research Methods

22 Developmental psychology in the news… Can a violent video game called Grand Theft Auto be responsible for an 18-year-old, Devin Moore, murdering three people? A scene from the violent video game Grand Theft Auto. January 18, 2006

23 “Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to increased aggression in adolescents.”

24 1. Correlational design: see how two (or more) pre-existing variables are related Correlation coefficient r =r =r =r = r =r =r =r = +.20 Sign: direction of relation + variables move in same direction - variables move in opposite direction Ranges 0 to 1: Closer to 1 stronger the relation Number: strength of relation General Research Designs

25 Cannot make cause & effect conclusion Cannot make cause & effect conclusion third variable problem: other variable might account for relation What conclusions can we make? Video Games Aggressive Behavior r = +.20 directionality problem: do not know the direction of relation Personality Peer pressure

26 “Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to (i.e., causes) increased aggression in adolescents.”

27 VariablesVariables Dependent (DV) Outcome variable General Research Designs 2. Experimental design: manipulate variable to test the effects on outcome variable (Aggressive behavior)

28 VariablesVariables Dependent (DV) Outcome variable General Research Designs Independent (IV) Manipulated variable (Aggressive behavior) 2. Experimental design: manipulate variable to test the effects on outcome variable Group 1: nonviolent game Group 2: violent game

29 How do I know if experiment worked?

30 Because have random assignment to IV Because have random assignment to IV –rules out confounds – other explanations –without it, do not have a “true” experiment What conclusions can we make? Independent (IV) Dependent (DV) Can make cause & effect conclusion Can make cause & effect conclusion

31 “Playing violent video games, like Grand Theft Auto, leads to increased aggression in adolescents.”

32 Developmental Research Designs VariablesMeasure Effects from… Building blocks of ALL developmental research Changes in a person experiences unique to a generation circumstances during data collection birth year Cohort time of measurement Time chronological age Age

33 Developmental Research Designs Cross-sectional: age & cohort vary, time constant Cross-sectional: age & cohort vary, time constant Time Cohort r = +.30 r = +.20 r = +.10 Can only conclude age differences

34 Developmental Research Designs Longitudinal: age & time vary, cohort constant Longitudinal: age & time vary, cohort constant Time Cohort r = +.30 r = +.20 r = +.10 Can conclude age change

35 Advantages & Disadvantages Measures age change Time effects Practice effects Nonrandom drop-out Lack of generalizability LongitudinalDisadvantagesDesignAdvantagesCross-sectional Practical & quick Age differences Cohort effect With all the problems, what should researchers do?

36 Developmental Research Designs Sequential: combine cross-sectional & longitudinal designs Sequential: combine cross-sectional & longitudinal designs Time Cohort Age & cohort effects can be teased apart Age change that generalizes to other cohorts

37 Considered the “best” developmental research design…but hardly ever done?

38 In-class Assignment 1 The purpose of this assignment is to give you an opportunity to apply and practice what you have learned about general and developmental research designs.


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