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1 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Chapter 1 Understanding.

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Presentation on theme: "1 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Chapter 1 Understanding."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Chapter 1 Understanding Development

2 2 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development What is Development? Systematic changes and continuities -In the individual -Occur between conception and death -Three interdependent domains of development -Physical -Cognitive -Psychosocial Developmental change involves gains and losses throughout life

3 3 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Key Developmental Processes Maturation: The biological unfolding of the individual genetic plan Learning: Relatively permanent changes due to environmental experiences

4 4 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Age Grades, Age Norms, and the Social Clock Age Grade: Socially defined age groups -Statuses, roles, privileges, and responsibilities -Example: Adults can vote, children can’t Age Norms: Beh expectations according to age -Example: Children attend school Social Clock: When in life things should occur -Example: Early adulthood is the time for first marriages “Off time” experiences are more difficult

5 5 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Phases of the Life-Span in Historical Context Childhood -Before 1600: Children viewed as miniature adults -Modern view: Children innocent and need protection Adulthood -Average life expectancy in 1900 was 49 years -In Females: White 80 years, Black 75 years -Males: White 75 years, Black 68 years -Increasing population age 65 and older

6 6 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Goals of Studying Life-Span Development Description -Normal development, individual differences Explanation -Typical and differential human development Optimization -Positive development, enhancing human capacities -Prevention and overcoming difficulties

7 7 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Methods of Studying Life-Span Development Historical -Baby Biographies: Charles Darwin (1877) -Questionnaires: G. Stanley Hall (1891) Key Assumptions of Modern Life-Span Perspective: Paul Baltes (1987) -Lifelong, multidirectional process -Gain, loss and lifelong plasticity -Historical/cultural contexts, multiple influences -Multi-disciplinary studies

8 8 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Developmental Research: Data Collection Self-Reports: Interviews, Questionnaires, Tests -Advantage: easy, inexpensive -Disadvantage: verbal & cognitive skills, R bias Behavioral Observations -Naturalistic -Advantage: Natural setting -Disadvantage: Conditions not controlled -Structured (Lab) -Advantage: Conditions controlled -Disadvantage: Cannot generalize to natural settings

9 9 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Research Methods: The Experiment Three Critical Features -Manipulation of the independent variable -Random assignment of individuals to treatment condition -Experimental control -Advantage: Cause-effect established -Disadvantage: artificial, may be impossible

10 10 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Research Methods: Correlational Determine if variables are systematically related Correlation: A measure of the relationship between two variables -Range from +1.0 to –1.0 -If positive, variables move in the same direction -If negative, variables move in different direction -No relationship if correlation is zero

11 11 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Figure 1.3

12 12 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Research Methods: Correlational Advantage: easy, study many Vs & those not possible/ethical to manipulate Disadvantage: no control or cause-effect

13 13 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Developmental Research Designs Cross-Sectional Designs -Multiple cohorts or age groups studied -Collect data once -Examine group differences at one time -Advantage: age differences, inexpensive -Disadvantage: cohort effects, change over time

14 14 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Developmental Research Designs Longitudinal Designs -1 cohort or age group studied -Collect data many times -Examine changes across time (age) -Advantage: change over time, developmental trends -Disadvantage: expensive, attrition, time of measurement

15 15 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Age, Cohort, and Time of Measurement Effects Age effects: Changes occur simply due to age Cohort effects: Being born in one historical context -Changes which occur due to differences in society for a given generation -Disadvantage for the cross-sectional design Time effects: Historical events or trends -Events taking place at the time data is collected -Disadvantage for the longitudinal design

16 16 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Sequential Designs Combines cross-sectional and longitudinal designs -Multiple groups assessed multiple times -Advantages of both designs -Give us information about -Which age-related trends are truly age effects? -Which age-related trends are truly cohort effects? -Which trends are a result of historical events?

17 17 of 17 Carol K. Sigelman, Elizabeth A. Rider Life-Span Human Development, 4th Edition Chapter 1: Understanding Life-Span Human Development Issues in Developmental Studies Random sampling -Increases likelihood that sample is representative of the population Protecting the rights of research participants -Risk to benefit balance of the research Researcher responsibilities -Informed consent, debriefing -Protection from harm, confidentiality


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