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Slide 1 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter Twelve: Gender and Sexuality.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter Twelve: Gender and Sexuality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter Twelve: Gender and Sexuality John W. Santrock

2 Slide 2 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender Biological Influences –Gender: characteristics of being female or male –Gender role: set of expectations prescribing how females and males should act, feel, and think –Gender typing: process by which children acquire thoughts, behaviors, and feelings culturally appropriate for their gender –Sex: designates the biological aspects of being female or male

3 Slide 3 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender Biological Influences –Chromosomes: 23rd pair with X and Y –Hormones Estrogens –Influences development of female physical sex characteristics and helps regulate menstrual cycle Androgens – Testosterone promotes development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics

4 Slide 4 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender Biological Influences –Examples of conditions from unusual levels of sex hormones early in development Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) Androgen-insensitive males Pelvic field defect Failed sex reassignment

5 Slide 5 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender Evolutionary psychology view –Differing roles in reproduction placed different pressures on males and females –Key gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behaviors Males — competition, violence, risk-taking Females — parenting effort, selection of successful mate

6 Slide 6 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender Social influences –Differences due to social experiences Social role theory: gender differences result from contrasting roles of men and women Psychoanalytic theory of gender: claims child identifies with same-sex parent by age 5 or 6 Many disagree, claiming gender learned much earlier (even in absence of same-sex parent)

7 Slide 7 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender Social influences –Differences due to social experiences Social cognitive theory of gender — gender development results from observation and imitation, use of rewards and punishments for gender-appropriate behaviors –Mothers’ socialization strategies –Fathers’ socialization strategies –Exposure to media, peers, other adults in culture

8 Slide 8 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender Cognitive influences –Gender schema theory Gender typing emerges gradually in gender schemas of what is culturally gender-appropriate and inappropriate Gender-typed behavior can occur before children develop gender constancy Schema: cognitive structure Gender schema: organizes world in terms of female and male

9 Slide 9 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 Cognitive Influences Gender schema theory –Gender typing emerges gradually in gender schemas of what is culturally gender-appropriate and inappropriate –Gender-typed behavior can occur before children develop gender constancy –Schema: cognitive structure –Gender schema: organizes world in terms of male and female

10 Slide 10 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 Gender Stereotyping, Similarities, and Differences Gender stereotyping –General impressions and beliefs about females and males –Traditional masculinity and femininity Males — instrumental traits Females — expressive traits Roles and traits — unequal social status, power –Developmentally Gender stereotyping present in 2-year-olds Stereotyping varies with culture

11 Slide 11 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Young Children’s Judgments about Competency in Stereotyped Occupations Fig. 12.2

12 Slide 12 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Gender Stereotyping, Similarities, and Differences Gender similarities and differences –Physical differences Females –have longer life expectancy –less likely to develop mental or physical disorders –Resistant to infections, more elastic blood vessels Males have higher levels of stress hormones causing faster clotting and higher blood pressure

13 Slide 13 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Gender Stereotyping, Similarities, and Differences Gender similarities and differences –Physical differences Female brains are smaller, have more folds Part of hypothalamus involved in sexual behavior is larger in men Area of parietal lobe functioning in visuospatial skills is larger in males Areas of brain involved in emotional expression show more activity in females

14 Slide 14 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 14 Gender Stereotyping, Similarities, and Differences Cognitive similarities and differences –Some claim males better at math and visuospatial skills and females better at verbal skills –Others claim no differences or exaggerated –National standardized tests Boys slightly better at math and science Girls better at reading and writing Overall, girls superior students to boys –More males placed in special/remedial classes

15 Slide 15 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Visuospatial Skills of Males and Females Fig. 12.3

16 Slide 16 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 Gender Stereotyping, Similarities, and Differences Socioemotional similarities and differences –Aggression Males more physically aggressive in all cultures Females may be verbally aggressive; use relational aggression more than men –Self-Regulation Males show less self-regulation, can lead to behavioral problems –Controversies over psychological differences

17 Slide 17 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 Gender Stereotyping, Similarities, and Differences Socioemotional similarities and differences –Meta-analysis Gender differences: small to nonexistent Physical aggression differences were moderate Largest difference in motor skills favoring males Males more sexually active than females

18 Slide 18 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 Gender Stereotyping, Similarities, and Differences Socioemotional similarities and differences –Gender in context Gender varies across contexts Males more likely to help in perceived danger Females more likely to volunteer to help with child Girls show more care-giving behaviors than boys Males more likely to show anger towards strangers and turn anger into aggression Cultural backgrounds influence socialization

19 Slide 19 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Gender Development Through the Life Span Childhood –Children form many ideas about what the sexes are like from about 1½ to 3 years of age –Boys receive earlier and more intense gender socialization (e.g., “boy code”) Boys could benefit from more socialization to express emotions and better regulation of aggression –Children show clear preference for same-sex peers

20 Slide 20 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 Gender Development Through the Life Span Adolescence –Transition point; changes in puberty –Gender-intensification hypothesis Psychological and behavioral differences between boys and girls become greater during early adolescence Mixed messages and special problems

21 Slide 21 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 Gender Development Through the Life Span Adulthood and aging –Gender and communication Rapport talk –Language of conversation, a way to establish connections and negotiate relationships –Preferred by women Report talk –Language designed to give information, including public speaking –Preferred by men

22 Slide 22 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 Gender Development Through the Life Span Adulthood and aging –Women’s gender development Women often try to actively participate in others’ development –Emotionally –Intellectually –Socially Women maintain competency, self-motivation, and self- determination in relationships

23 Slide 23 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 23 Gender Development Through the Life Span Adulthood and aging –Men’s gender development Male roles are contradictory and inconsistent –Can cause role-strain in »Health (may be considered: hazardous) »Male-female relationships (affected by traditions) »Male-male relationships (fathers have impact)

24 Slide 24 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 24 Gender Development Through the Life Span Gender and aging –Decreased masculinity in most men; decreased femininity may occur in some women Impacted by cohort effects –Older women face double jeopardy of ageism and sexism –Older ethnic minority women face triple jeopardy: ageism, sexism, racism

25 Slide 25 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 Exploring Sexuality Biological and cultural factors –Biological Sexual behavior is influenced by sex hormones Sexual behavior is so individualized in humans that it is difficult to specify hormonal effects –Sexual motivation also influenced by cultural factors

26 Slide 26 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Exploring Sexuality Biological and cultural factors –Cultural factors Range of sexual values across cultures is substantial –Ines Beag: small island off coast of Ireland »Extreme sexually repressive conditions –Mangaian culture in South Pacific »Sexual behavior encouraged very open

27 Slide 27 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 27 Exploring Sexuality Biological and cultural factors –Cultural factors Sexual scripts — stereotyped expectancy patterns for how people should behave sexually –Traditional religious script — sex is accepted only within marriage; sex is for reproduction and sometimes affection –Romantic script — sex synonymous with love

28 Slide 28 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 28 Sex in America Survey Cohabiting (married)Noncohabiting Men Women 1% 2 to 3 times a week 3% Never A few times a year A few times a month 4 or more times a week Fig. 12.4

29 Slide 29 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 29 Exploring Sexuality Sexual orientation –Heterosexual attitudes and behavior Different categories for frequency of sex Married couples have sex more often Most couples enjoy traditional sex Adultery is exception, not the rule Men think about sex more than women Most lead conservative sexual lives

30 Slide 30 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 30 Exploring Sexuality Sexual orientation –Attitudes and behaviors of lesbians and gay males Bisexual: sexually attracted to both sexes Research on biological and hormonal differences on sexual preferences unclear Anatomically — area of hypothalamus governing sexual behavior 2x larger in heterosexual males –Sexual orientation: most likely results from mix of genetic, hormonal, cognitive, environmental factors

31 Slide 31 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 31 Exploring Sexuality Sexual orientation –Attitudes and behaviors of lesbians and gay males Gender differences appearing in heterosexual relationships also occurs in homosexual relationships –Importance of trust, affection, sharing of friends –Sexual attraction more important to men –Lesbians have fewer partners, have sex less often –More equal in labor and power than traditional couple

32 Slide 32 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 32 Exploring Sexuality Sexual orientation –Attitudes and behaviors of lesbians and gay males Gay and lesbians experience life as minorities in dominant culture, with bicultural identity Special concern: –Hate crimes –Stigma-related experiences; verbal harassment

33 Slide 33 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 33 Exploring Sexuality Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) –Gonorrhea –Syphilis –Chlamydia –Genital Herpes –HPV — causes genital warts –HIV and AIDS — sexually-transmitted disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

34 Slide 34 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 34 Exploring Sexuality Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) –AIDS has impact worldwide Sub-Saharan Africa has epidemic proportions –Little use of condoms –High infection rate for adolescents –Orphans left with o caregivers »12 million orphans in 2006 In United States — prevention targeted at specific groups –Drug users, STD infected persons, young gay males

35 Slide 35 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 35 Exploring Sexuality Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) –Protecting against STIs Education and development of effective drug treatments Only safe behavior is abstinence Know your and your partner’s risk status Obtain screening tests for STIs Have protected, not unprotected, sex Don’t have sex with multiple partners

36 Slide 36 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 36 Exploring Sexuality Forcible Sexual Behavior –Rape Forcible sexual intercourse without consent; legal definitions vary by state Victims reluctant to report rape; stats vary –Date or acquaintance rape: coercive sex activity with acquaintance; concern for college students –Rape of male victims is rare, does occur Constitutes almost 5% of all rapes

37 Slide 37 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 37 Rape Victim-Offender Relationships Friend Percentage of sample ClassmateBoyfriend/ ex-boyfriend Acquaintance Offender Other Fig. 12.5

38 Slide 38 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 38 Exploring Sexuality Sexual Harassment –Ranging from remarks to physical contact, blatant propositions to sexual assaults –Most victims are women in educational and workplace settings –Has serious psychological effects on victim –One person’s manifestation of power over another

39 Slide 39 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 39 Sexuality through the Life Span Child sexuality –Majority of children engage in some sex play Usually with friends or siblings Exhibiting or inspecting the genitals Most motivated by curiosity Sex play declines, but sexual interest remains high in elementary school years

40 Slide 40 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 40 Sexuality through the Life Span Sexuality in adolescence –Time of sexual exploration, experimentation, fantasies, and incorporating sexuality into one’s identity –Most have insatiable curiosity about sex –Majority develop mature sexual identity; most have times of vulnerability and confusion –Societies vary in response to adolescent sexuality

41 Slide 41 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 41 Sexuality through the Life Span Sexuality in adolescence –Developing a Sexual Identity Multifaceted, lengthy challenge to manage new feelings, develop identity and self-regulation Great variety in orientations, interest levels, anxiety levels, activity, and reasons for choices in activity Gay or lesbian identity: gradual coming-out Homosexual behavior in adolescence may not continue into adulthood

42 Slide 42 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 42 Sexuality through the Life Span Sexuality in adolescence –Timing and frequency of sexual behaviors First initiation experience varies by country, culture Cross-culturally: majority of females and males have first experience by age 17

43 Slide 43 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 43 Sexuality through the Life Span Sexuality in adolescence –Timing and frequency of sexual behaviors U.S. study: –African American and inner-city youth most active –Asian American youth most restricted –Males more active than females –Casual oral sex is common, increasing; believed to be safer and not really “having sex”

44 Slide 44 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 44 Sexuality through the Life Span Sexuality in adolescence –Personal risk factors Emotionally unprepared for sexual experiences Other risky behaviors linked to early sexual activity –Drug use, delinquency, school-related problems –Risky behavior patterns can continue as disorders in emerging adulthood Contextual factors –SES, parenting styles, peer factors –Having sibling engaging in early activity

45 Slide 45 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 45 Sexuality through the Life Span Sexuality in adolescence –Cognitive factors are linked to sexual risk taking –Contraceptive use can reduce risks; increased use of contraceptives by adolescents Age affects choice and consistency of use –3 million U.S. adolescents acquire STIs annually –U.S. adolescent pregnancy rates decreasing; but one of highest rates in developed world Negative consequences for teen mother and child

46 Slide 46 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 46 Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Pregnancy Fig Births per 1,000 women 15 to 19 years old Year 1985

47 Slide 47 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 47 Sexuality through the Life Span Consequences of Adolescent Pregnancy –Health risks for mother and child Low birth rate in newborns linked to infant mortality, neurological problems, childhood illness –Young mothers more likely to Drop out of school; were low achievers in school Have history of conduct problems Come from low-income backgrounds Live in poverty

48 Slide 48 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 48 Sexuality through the Life Span Emerging adulthood –Patterns of heterosexual behavior Time frame for sexual activity and singlehood Males have more casual sex; females more selective Most limit sex partners to one or two persons annually Casual sex more common in “hooking up” The earlier the age of first sex, the more sexual activity in emerging adulthood Religious adults have fewer sexual partners Alcohol use loosens inhibitions, decreases caution

49 Slide 49 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 49 Sexuality through the Life Span Sexuality and aging –Middle adulthood Climacteric: midlife transition, fertility ends/declines Women: Menopause late forties or early fifties; –Perimenopausal is transitional time –Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): risks involved Men: less testosterone, less desire, possible erectile dysfunction (Viagra and similar drugs have appeared) Ability to function slows little, frequency drops in old age

50 Slide 50 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 50 Sexuality through the Life Span Sexuality and aging –Late adulthood Aging does have some effects on sexual performance Men experience more changes than women –Orgasm less frequent –More direct stimulation needed –Erection problems more likely after 65 Sexuality can be lifelong; most older adults report being satisfied

51 Slide 51 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 51 The End


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