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Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 12 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Gender and Sexuality.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 12 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Gender and Sexuality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 12 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Gender and Sexuality

2 Slide 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender and Sexuality Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on GenderBiological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender Gender Comparisons and Classification Gender Development through the Life Span Exploring Sexuality Sexuality through the Life Span

3 Slide 3 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender and Sex Gender social dimension of being female or male –Gender role: set of expectations prescribing how females and males should act, feel, and think –Gender typing: process by which children acquire thoughts, behaviors, and feelings culturally appropriate for their gender Sex designates the biological aspects of being female or male Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender

4 Slide 4 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Biological Influences Chromosomes 23rd pair with X and Y Hormones –Estrogens Estradiol influences development of female physical sex characteristics and helps regulate menstrual cycle –Androgens Testosterone promotes development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender

5 Slide 5 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Biological Influences Examples of conditions from unusual levels of sex hormones early in development –Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) –Androgen-insensitive males –Pelvic field defect –Failed sex reassignment Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender

6 Slide 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Evolutionary Psychology View of Gender Differing roles in reproduction placed different pressures on males and females Key gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behaviors –Males competition, violence, risk-taking –Females parenting effort, selection of successful mate Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender

7 Slide 7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Influences Differences due to social experiences –Social role theory: gender differences result from contrasting roles of men and women –Psychoanalytic theory of gender: claims child identifies with same-sex parent by age 5 or 6 Many disagree, claiming gender learned much earlier (even in absence of same-sex parent) Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender

8 Slide 8 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Influences Differences due to social experiences –Social cognitive theory of gender gender development results from observation and imitation, use of rewards and punishments for gender-appropriate behaviors Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender

9 Slide 9 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive Influences Cognitive development theory of gender –Childrens gender typing occurs after they think of themselves as boys and girls; gender constancy must be achieved first –Once consistently conceived as male or female, children prefer activities, objects, and attitudes consistent with this label Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender

10 Slide 10 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive Influences Gender schema theory –Gender typing emerges gradually in gender schemas of what is culturally gender-appropriate and inappropriate –Gender-typed behavior can occur before children develop gender constancy –Gender schemas fuel gender typing Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender

11 Slide 11 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender Stereotyping Broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and males –Traditional masculinity and femininity Males instrumental Females expressive –Stereotyping varies with culture –Stereotyping of occupations Gender Comparisons and Classification

12 Slide 12 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Young Childrens Judgments about Competency in Stereotyped Occupations Fig. 12.3 Gender Comparisons and Classification

13 Slide 13 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender Similarities and Differences Physical differences –Females have longer life expectancy –Females less likely to develop mental or physical disorders –Males have higher levels of stress hormones causing faster clotting and higher blood pressure Gender Comparisons and Classification

14 Slide 14 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender Similarities and Differences Physical differences –Female brains are smaller, have more folds –Part of hypothalamus involved in sexual behavior is larger in men –Area of parietal lobe functioning in visuospatial skills is larger in males –Areas of brain involved in emotional expression show more activity in females Gender Comparisons and Classification

15 Slide 15 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive Similarities and Differences Some claim males better at math and visuospatial skills and females better at verbal skills Others claim differences exaggerated National standardized tests –Boys slightly better at math and science –Girls better at reading and writing –Overall, girls superior students to boys Gender Comparisons and Classification

16 Slide 16 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Visuospatial Skills of Males and Females Gender Comparisons and Classification Fig. 12.4

17 Slide 17 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Socioemotional Similarities and Differences Aggression –Males more physically aggressive in all cultures –Females more verbally aggressive; use relational aggression more than men Self-Regulation –Males show less self-regulation, can lead to behavioral problems Controversies over psychological differences Gender Comparisons and Classification

18 Slide 18 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Socioemotional Similarities and Differences Gender in context –Gender varies across contexts –Males more likely to help in perceived danger –Females more likely to volunteer to help with child –Girls show more care-giving behaviors than boys –Males more likely to show anger towards strangers and turn anger into aggression –Cultural backgrounds influence socialization Gender Comparisons and Classification

19 Slide 19 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny Androgyny presence of masculine and feminine characteristics in same individual –Bem Sex-Role Inventory: Instrumental, expressive traits Context influencing gender role is adaptive –Gender-role transcendence people should be evaluated as persons, not in terms of femininity, masculinity, or androgyny Gender Comparisons and Classification

20 Slide 20 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Bems Gender-Role Classification Gender Comparisons and Classification Fig. 12.5

21 Slide 21 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender Development in Childhood Children form many ideas about what the sexes are like from about 1½ to 3 years of age Boys receive earlier and more intense gender socialization Children show clear preference for same-sex peers Gender roles becoming more flexible Gender Development through the Life-Span

22 Slide 22 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender Development in Adolescence Transition point; changes in puberty Gender-intensification hypothesis –Psychological and behavioral differences between boys and girls become greater during early adolescence –Increased socialization pressures to conform to traditional gender roles –Mixed messages and special problems Gender Development through the Life-Span

23 Slide 23 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Womens Gender Development –Women often try to actively participate in others development Emotionally Intellectually Socially –Women maintain competency, self-motivation, and self-determination in relationships Gender Development through the Life-Span

24 Slide 24 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Communication Between Men and Women Rapport talk –Language of conversation, a way to establish connections and negotiate relationships –Preferred by women Report talk –Language designed to give information, including public speaking –Preferred by men Gender Development through the Life-Span

25 Slide 25 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Mens gender development –Male roles are contradictory and inconsistent –Can cause role-strain in Health Male-female relationships Male-male relationships Gender Development through the Life-Span

26 Slide 26 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender and Aging Parental imperative –Mothers and fathers adopt different gender roles so they can raise children more effectively –Older women face double jeopardy of ageism and sexism –Older men become more feminine, less active, and more sensitive in relationships Gender Development through the Life-Span

27 Slide 27 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Biological and Cultural Factors Biological –Sexual behavior is influenced by sex hormones –Sexual behavior is so individualized in humans that it is difficult to specify hormonal effects Sexual motivation also influenced by cultural factors Exploring Sexuality

28 Slide 28 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Biological and Cultural Factors Cultural factors –Range of sexual values across cultures is substantial –Sexual scripts stereotyped expectancy patterns for how people should behave sexually Traditional religious script sex is accepted only within marriage; sex is for reproduction and sometimes affection Romantic script sex synonymous with love Exploring Sexuality

29 Slide 29 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The 1994 Sex in America Survey Exploring Sexuality Cohabiting (married)Noncohabiting Men Women 1% 2 to 3 times a week 3% Never A few times a year A few times a month 4 or more times a week Fig. 12.6

30 Slide 30 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sexual Orientation Heterosexual attitudes and behavior –Different categories for frequency of sex –Married couples have sex more often –Most couples enjoy traditional sex –Adultery is exception, not the rule –Men think about sex more than women –Most lead conservative sexual lives Exploring Sexuality

31 Slide 31 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sexual Orientation Attitudes and behaviors of lesbians and gay males –Sexual orientation is on continuum –Bisexual: sexually attracted to both sexes –Research on biological and hormonal differences on sexual preferences unclear –Area of hypothalamus governing sexual behavior 2x larger in heterosexual males Exploring Sexuality

32 Slide 32 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Continuum of Sexual Orientation Exploring Sexuality Fig. 12.7 3 Largely heterosexual but more than incidental homosexual behavior 0 Exclusively heterosexual behavior 1 Largely heterosexual but incidental homosexual behavior 3 Equal amounts of heterosexual and homosexual behavior 4 Largely homosexual but more than incidental heterosexual behavior 5 Largely homosexual but incidental heterosexual behavior 6 Exclusively homosexual behavior

33 Slide 33 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sexual Orientation Attitudes and behaviors of lesbians and gay males –Gender differences appearing in heterosexual relationships also occurs in homosexual relationships –Gay and lesbians experience life as minorities in dominant culture, with bicultural identity Exploring Sexuality

34 Slide 34 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sexually Transmitted Infections Gonorrhea Syphilis Chlamydia Genital Herpes HPV – causes genital warts AIDS – sexually-transmitted disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Exploring Sexuality

35 Slide 35 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Protecting Against STIs Education and development of effective drug treatments Only safe behavior is abstinence Know your and your partners risk status Obtain medical examinations Have protected, not unprotected, sex Dont have sex with multiple partners Exploring Sexuality

36 Slide 36 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Forcible Sexual Behavior Rape –Forcible sexual intercourse without consent; legal definitions vary by state –Victims reluctant to report rape; inaccurate stats –Occurs more often in large cities; 200,000 rapes reported annually in U.S. –Date or acquaintance rape of concern in colleges Exploring Sexuality

37 Slide 37 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sexual Harassment Ranging from remarks to physical contact, blatant propositions to sexual assaults Most victims are women in educational and workplace settings Has serious psychological effects on victim One persons manifestation of power over another Exploring Sexuality

38 Slide 38 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Rape Victim-Offender Relationships Exploring Sexuality 50 40 30 20 10 0 Friend Percentage of sample ClassmateBoyfriend/ ex-boyfriend Acquaintance Offender Other Fig. 12.8

39 Slide 39 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Child Sexuality Majority of children engage in some sex play –Usually with friends or siblings –Exhibiting or inspecting the genitals –Most motivated by curiosity –Sex play declines, but sexual interest remains high in elementary school years Sexuality through the Life-Span

40 Slide 40 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adolescent Sexuality Adolescence –Time of sexual exploration, experimentation, fantasies, and incorporating sexuality into ones identity –Most have insatiable curiosity about sex –Majority develop mature sexual identity; most have times of vulnerability and confusion –Societies vary in response to adolescent sexuality Sexuality through the Life-Span

41 Slide 41 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Developing a Sexual Identity Multifaceted challenge to manage new feelings, develop identity and self-regulation Great variety in orientations, interest levels, anxiety levels, activity, and reasons for choices in activity Gay or lesbian identity: coming-out Homosexual behavior in adolescence may not continue into adulthood Sexuality through the Life-Span

42 Slide 42 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors Typical progression of sexual behavior –Kissing, followed by petting –Intercourse, or oral sex (increased substantially) –Males report being active before females –Most have sexual intercourse by mid-teens –Timing of sexual initiation varies widely by country and gender Sexuality through the Life-Span

43 Slide 43 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Risk Factors, Youth Assets, and Sexual Problems Personal risk factors –Ineffective or lack of use of contraceptives –Early maturation linked to early sexual initiation; varies by ethnic group –Lack of self-regulation Contextual risk factors –Family parenting and SES –Neighborhood environment Sexuality through the Life-Span

44 Slide 44 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Other Risks Sexually transmitted infections –Africa: girls infected with HIV by adult men Adolescent pregnancy –U.S. adolescent pregnancy rates decreasing; but one of highest rates in developed world –Cross-cultural studies on sexual active adolescents Sexuality through the Life-Span

45 Slide 45 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Pregnancy Sexuality through the Life-Span Fig. 12.10 Births per 1,000 women 15 to 19 years old 60 40 1975 0 80 20 19901970198019952000 Year 1985

46 Slide 46 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Decreasing U.S. Adolescent Pregnancy Rates Greatest decline in 1990s –Increased contraceptive use –Fear of STIs –Education and health classes –Economic prosperity in 1990s –Greatest drop in African American girls aged 15-17 –Latin American girls most likely to get pregnant Sexuality through the Life-Span

47 Slide 47 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Consequences of Adolescent Pregnancy Health risks for mother and child –Low birth rate in newborns linked to infant mortality, neurological problems, childhood illness Young mothers more likely to –Drop out of school; were low achievers in school –Have history of conduct problems –Come from low-income backgrounds –Live in poverty Sexuality through the Life-Span

48 Slide 48 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sexuality and Aging Middle adulthood –Climacteric midlife transition in which fertility ends or declines –Women Menopause late forties or early fifties –Men less testosterone, less desire, possible erectile dysfunction (Viagra) Ability to function slows little, frequency drops Sexuality through the Life-Span

49 Slide 49 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sexuality and Aging Late adulthood –Men experience more changes than women Orgasm less frequent More direct stimulation needed Erection problems more likely after 65 –Sexuality can be lifelong –Two-thirds of older adults satisfied Sexuality through the Life-Span

50 Slide 50 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The End 12


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