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© West Educational Publishing Gender Differences C HAPTER 13 M ales and females are far more alike than different. In this chapter, we explore what science has learned about the differences. The causes are not always clear. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Gender Concepts Gender Identity Gender Roles Gender Stereotypes Click the buttons for more information. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Gender Concepts Originally, gender referred to what society viewed as appropriate for males and females. Now, gender can refer to the sex of the person. Gender Identity Gender Roles Gender Stereotypes Click a button for more information. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Gender Concepts A person’s perception of being male or female Gender Identity Gender Roles Gender Stereotypes Click a button for more information. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Gender Concepts Widely-held, often inaccurate beliefs about ability and personality traits based on sex Gender Identity Gender Roles Gender Stereotypes Click a button for more information. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Gender Concepts Culturally-defined roles for males and females Gender Identity Gender Roles Gender Stereotypes Click a button for more information. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing The Role of Hormones Hormones are chemicals that control bodily responses such as emotions, growth, and sexuality. Males have more androgen. Females have more estrogen. Hormones play a lesser role in human development and behavior than they do in animals. The sex hormones are estrogen and androgen. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Male/Female Differences The only activity that is clearly defined along gender lines is reproduction. All other activities are shared by both sexes to different degrees. Nurturance: Women generally show more empathy, but males can also be nurturing. No one has proven the existence of strong maternal instinct in humans. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Physical activity: Boys start out more physically active. By adulthood, differences in activity levels between genders have disappeared. Aggression: Males are aggressive in more situations than females. Females do show aggression in some situations, however. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Males and females are very close in overall intellectual abilities. Intelligence Spatial Skills Skills involving the ability to imagine how objects would look when moved about in space. Males generally do better though social role, social class, ethnic background, and the type of test given also play roles. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Mathematical Ability Studies are not clear and have not as yet conclusively shown that males are innately better at math. Males do better than females on the SAT math section, but study findings have not been consistent. Teachers and parents have higher expectations for males. Females may avoid difficult areas such as math. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Verbal Ability Includes not just speaking but also word problems, reading and writing. Generally, girls do better than males until early adolescence. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Social Factors Self-Confidence In adolescence, females’ confidence often declines (concerned with how boys will react to them?). The loss of confidence is highest in whites and Hispanics and lowest in African Americans. Overall, studies have not found major differences in self-confidence levels between males and females. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Friendships Boys’ groups usually have a leader, girls have more equal status in groups. Boys usually issue orders and demands while girls make more suggestions. Adult females tend to have a best friend of the same sex while males do not. Adult females have a few close friends while males have a larger number of male acquaintances. Females initiate most breakups. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Communication MenWomen Talk more and interrupt more Touch more Are the ones being touched Disclose more about themselves Talk less and interrupt less Disclose less about self Boys sit next to one another Girls sit facing one another Males offer solutions to problems Girls share similar stories EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Selecting a Mate Overall, the top eight characteristics for potential mate selection are: 1. Social Status 2. Economic Status 3. Physical Attractiveness 4. Personality 5. Intelligence 6. Ambition 7. Character 8. Sense of Humor EXIT
© West Educational Publishing EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Hormonal Cycles Only about 5% of women are affected by PMS (premenstrual syndrome). EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Gender Role Behavior Gender role behaviors reflect what society says are appropriate actions for males and females. Through identification with a parent of the same sex, people learn how to behave appropriately. Which jobs are appropriate for males? for females? EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Fathers who are very warm toward daughters tend to produce mild tomboyishness in girls. Boys whose fathers were absent during preschool years tend to be less aggressive and not as active in sports. People who are considered mentally healthy tend not to have excessive masculine or feminine qualities. Children tend to identify with the dominant parent in the household, even across sex lines. Gender studies have shown EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Fathers are more determined that appropriate activities are given to young male children. People handle babies differently depending on whether they are identified as male or female. People will assign different characteristics to babies when they are identified as male or female. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Mixing Gender Roles Rigid extremes for gender roles for males and females restrict the full range of human behaviors and emotions. Androgynous people are high in male and female characteristics. Androgynous behavior can lead to more flexibility and willingness to share characteristics of members of the opposite sex. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Gender-Busting Communication Hints (for Males) 1. Do you frequently interrupt females while they are speaking? Try to break the habit. 2. Avoid answering questions with “Nope”and “Yep.” Try to explain more and give some details why you did something. 3. Try to open up on personal issues. 4. Ask for help if you need it. Can you tell me how to get to...? Can you tell me how to get to...? EXIT
© West Educational Publishing 1. Look people directly in the eye. 2. If men interrupt conversations, assertively direct the conversation back. 3. Do not over-apologize for your behaviors. 4. Talk more often about current events, less about people. Gender-Busting Communication Hints (for Females) EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Summary of Main Topics Covered Gender Concepts Role of Hormones Male/Female Differences Intelligence Issues Social Factors Gender Role Behavior Communication Hints EXIT
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