Bina Nusantara DEFINITIONS Sex The distinction between male and female based on biological characteristic Gender The psychological experience of being male or female Gender Identity One’s view of oneself as female or male Gender Role The typical behaviors consistent with being male or female in a given culture Sexual Orientation The tendency to prefer romantic and sexual partners of the same or different sex Androgynous Having both typical feminine and masculine characteristic
Bina Nusantara Gender Similarities & Gender Differences Gender Differences in Physical Strength and Skills Gender Differences in Cognitive Ability and Achievement Gender Differences in Emotion and Social Behavior Gender Differences in Mating and Sexual Behavior
Bina Nusantara DEVELOPMENT OF GENDER IDENTITY AND ROLES Psychoanalytic theory of Gender Identity – Young children usually take on the manners and ways of their parent of the same sex identification – All children wish to win the approval of both parents and to avoid rejection; and adopt their behaviors, why ? 1. Children are frightened by their powerful parents 2. To win approval and love of the other-sex parent the child sees that the intimate relationship between the parents gives the same-sex parent benefits that the child doesn’t have Social Learning Theory of Gender Identity – Children learn behavior appropriate to their gender through observations of adults and older siblings – And through reinforcement and punishment of gender behaviors
Bina Nusantara SEXUAL ORIENTATION Heterosexual – Romantically and sexually attracted to those of the different sex Homosexual – Romantically and sexually attracted to those of the same sex – Why homosexual ? 1. Twins 2. Atypical levels of some sex hormones during prenatal development 3. Gay - Have more than one older male siblings 4. Hypothalamus or other brain structures 5. Etc.
Bina Nusantara ATYPICAL AND ABNORMAL SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Transvestism – The practice of obtaining sexual pleasure by dressing the clothes of the opposite sex Transsexualism – A condition which an individual feels trapped in the body of the wrong sex Fetishism – The practice of obtaining sexual arousal primarily or exclusively from specific objects Sexual Sadism – The practice of obtaining sexual pleasure by inflicting pain on others Sexual Masochism – A condition in which receiving pain is sexually exciting Voyeurism – The practice of obtaining sexual pleasure by watching members of opposite sex undressing or engaging in sexual activities Exhibitionist – The practice of obtaining sexual pleasure by exposing one’s genitals to others
Bina Nusantara FORCED SEXUAL BEHAVIOR Rape – The act of forcing sexual activity on an unwilling person Sexual abuse of Children – Incest : sexual relations between relatives – Child molestation : sexual behavior with a child without force or direct threat of force – Pedophilia : the practice of obtaining pleasure from sexual contact with children Sexual Harassment – Unwanted sexual advances, or any other form of coercive sexual behavior by others
Bina Nusantara SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION – An ability to engage successfully or comfortably in normal sexual activities – Types of dysfunction : Sexual desire – Sexual aversion disorder Sexual arousal : female and male – Vaginismus – Dyspareunia – Erectile dysfunction Orgasm Dysfunction – Inhibited female orgasm – Premature ejaculation – Retarded ejaculation
Bina Nusantara SEXUAL HEALTH Cancers of sexual anatomy Sexually Transmitted Diseases – Syphilis – Gonorrhea – Chlamydia – Pubic Lice – Genital Herpes – Genital Warts – AIDS