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Chapter 5: Slavery, Secession, and Civil War

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1 Chapter 5: Slavery, Secession, and Civil War
5.1 Tensions Over Slavery (27 Note Cards Required) SSUSH8 The students will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion. SSUSH9 The students will identity key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War.

2 Slavery System in which African-Americans were
bought, sold, and owned like property.

3 Second Middle Passage Domestic slave trade that involved the migration
of African American slaves from the Upper South to the Deep South and western territories/states.

4 Doctrine of Nullification
The belief that states have the right to nullify (ignore or cancel) any federal law they believe is unconstitutional.

5 State's Rights Belief that the federal government should restrict
itself to powers specifically stated in the Constitution, and that all else should be left to the states.

6 John C. Calhoun A South Carolina senator during the 1800s (and,
for a time, Andrew Jackson's vice president) who became a champion of state's rights and a southern regional hero.

7 Secede To leave the union.

8 South Carolina Nullification Crisis (1832)
Crisis in 1832 when South Carolina threatened to invoke the doctrine of nullification and secede from the Union if offensive tariffs were not repealed.

9 Sectionalism Regional differences that divide different parts
of the country.

10 Antebellum Pre-Civil War South.

11 Free Blacks These African Americans were free either
because they had purchased their own freedom, their masters had freed them for one reason or another, or because they were born to free parents. Most worked as artisans, farmers, or simple laborers, but a few owned businesses and some even owned black slaves themselves.

12 Mulattos People of color who had both black and white ancestry.

13 Social reformers who wanted to end slavery.
Abolitionists Social reformers who wanted to end slavery.

14 William Lloyd Garrison
White abolitionist who founded an influential, anti-slavery newspaper called The Liberator in 1831 and helped establish the American Anti- Slavery Society.

15 Grimke Sisters Sarah and Angelina Grimke were members of a
prominent slaveholding family in South Carolina who became abolitionists and won national acclaim for their passionate anti-slavery speeches.

16 Frederick Douglass African American abolitionist who escaped slavery in Maryland, educated himself and became the most prominent African American speaker for the abolition of slavery.

17 Nat Turner's Rebellion Slave rebellion that occurred in Virginia in 1831. Nat Turner organized a revolt in which 160 people (both black and white) were killed. Turner and nineteen others were hanged for their role in the uprising, and slaves were no longer allowed to become ministers.

18 Slave Codes Laws restricting the conduct and activities of slaves.

19 Missouri Compromise (1820)
It called for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. In addition, the southern boundary of Missouri, 36°30' N, would become a dividing line for any new states admitted to the Union. All new states north of that line would be Free states, while those to the south would be slave states; it was designed to maintain the balance of power in Washington, DC.

20 Wilmot Proviso Bill proposed by David Wilmot that advocated banning
slavery from any land taken from Mexico. Northerners embraced the idea, but southerners denounced it. Congress eventually voted down the Wilmot Proviso.

21 Popular Sovereignty Meant that the people in certain states and
territories would vote on whether or not to allow slavery.

22 Compromise of 1850 Political compromise that admitted California to the Union as a free state and declared the unorganized western territories free as well. The Utah and New Mexico territories, however, were allowed to decide the issue by popular sovereignty.

23 Fugitive Slave Law This law was part of the Compromise of 1850 and
required that northern states forcibly return escaped slaves to their owners in the South. Because the law was unpopular in the North, however, many northern citizens refused to obey it.

24 Kansas-Nebraska Act This act allowed the previously free and unorganized territories of Kansas and Nebraska to choose whether or not to permit slavery by popular sovereignty. Its guidelines effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise and reignited the slavery issue. Resulted in a bloody civil war within Kansas.

25 Bleeding Kansas In 1856, popularity sovereignty emplaced in Kansas.
Both abolitionists and pro-slavery factions rushed into Kansas, eventually setting up rival governments as armed clashes between the two sides became common.

26 Charles Sumner A fiery senator from Massachusetts who opposed slavery.
He was beaten with a cane in the Capitol by a congressman from South Carolina after giving a speech condemning slavery.

27 Dred Scott Decision US Supreme Court case in which a slave, Dred Scott, sued for his freedom. The Court ruled that Scott had no right to sue because, as a slave, he was not a citizen.

28 John Brown's Raid Plot led by John Brown, in which he and a band of radical abolitionists attacked the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry and seize weapons and give them to slaves who could then rise up in armed rebellion. Their plan failed and John Brown was hanged.

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