Presentation on theme: "The Abolitionist Movement Standard 8a-b. SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion."— Presentation transcript:
SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion. ► Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglas, and the Grimke sisters). ► b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and territories.
Abolition ► What is abolition? Definition: The end of slavery A movement that began in the 1830s ► Abolitionists argued that enslaved African Americans should be freed immediately ► In the eyes of Abolitionists, slavery was an enormous evil of which the country needed to repent
Slavery and the Southern Economy ► The South was mainly agricultural with very little manufacturing ► The main crops during the mid 1800s were rice and cotton, both which required extensive labor to produce ► Though slavery was prevalent in the South, a large number of Southerners did not own slaves.
► The first well-known abolitionist ► A free African American from North Carolina ► Published Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World ► Advocated violence and rebellion as the only way to end slavery
William Lloyd Garrison William Lloyd Garrison ► Responsible for rapid spread of abolitionist movement ► Founded Boston’s antislavery newspaper, The Liberator ► Believed slavery was immoral and slaveholders were evil ► Only option = immediate emancipation, or freeing of all enslaved people
► Escaped slave from Maryland ► Published The North Star, an antislavery newspaper ► Published an autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass ► One of the most prominent African American figures of the movement
► Gained freedom in 1827 ► Gave well-spoken, joyous and deeply religious speeches that drew large crowds ► Engaged listeners with humor, personal stories, contagious singing and strong antislavery messages
Turner’s Rebellion ► Slave revolts were a constant concern among plantation owners. The plantation owners were outnumbered greatly by the slaves. ► In 1831, Nat Turner, a Virginia slave, believed God had chosen him to lead a revolt. ► Turner led other enslaved people to kill the plantation family that owned Turner. The rebellion grew to about sixty enslaved people total.
Effects of Turner’s Rebellion ► In total, Turner & his followers killed over 50 white Virginians. ► Nat Turner was imprisoned & later executed. ► The rebellion increased fears of Southern plantation/slave owners that led to tighten control of blacks, stricter codes on enslaved blacks & free African Americans, and the suppression of all abolitionist material.
Reaction to Abolitionist Movement Northern Reaction Feared large migration of African Americans to the North Feared large migration of African Americans to the North Feared an upset of the social system would lead to war with the South Feared an upset of the social system would lead to war with the South Many Northerners sympathized with slaves – did not want to return them to slave owners Many Northerners sympathized with slaves – did not want to return them to slave owners Southern Reaction Slave holders defended slavery as vital to their economic stability Argued slaves enjoyed a close, friendly relationship with their owners Demanded suppression of abolitionist material
Leading up to the Missouri Compromise ► In 1819 the U.S. consisted of 11 free and 11 slave states ► Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state in 1819 One of the first states from the LA Purchase – debate ensued on whether it would enter the Union as a free or slave state.
The Missouri Compromise of 1820 ► Missouri Compromise of 1820 settled the impasse by banning slavery in all land within the LA Purchase lying above the 36°30’N parallel, with the exception of Missouri, which entered the Union in 1821 as a slave state. ► To balance the proportion of slave & free states, Maine entered the Union in 1820 as a free state.
► Why would the South agree not to expand slavery into the Unorganized Louisiana Territory?
Practice Questions All of the following were leaders in abolitionism EXCEPT A) Frederick Douglass B) The Grimké sisters C) John C. Calhoun D) William Lloyd Garrison
Practice Questions ► What was the result of the slave rebellion of Nat Turner? A) abolition B) the Wilmot Priviso C) the Missouri Compromise D) greater restrictions on slaves
Practice Questions All of these methods were used during the abolitionist movement to spread the message EXCEPT A) Speeches B) Newspapers C) Rebellions D) Negotiations with Plantation owners
Practice Questions ► How did the 1820 Missouri Compromise maintain a balance of free and slave states in the nation? A) the U.S. Senate is slow to abandon neutrality B) Missouri entered the Union as a slave state while Maine entered as a free state C) Congress agreed to allow states to vote on where they wanted to be free or slave D) the southern states agreed to abandon the Ordinance of Nullification and not secede.