Presentation on theme: "Causes of the American Civil War. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 The U.S. needs a balance of Free and Slave States. Why? Henry Clay (The Great Compromiser)"— Presentation transcript:
The Missouri Compromise of 1820 The U.S. needs a balance of Free and Slave States. Why? Henry Clay (The Great Compromiser) allows Missouri to become a slave state, and Maine to be a Free State. This Compromise maintained the balance of power in Congress.
The Nullification Crisis (1828 – 1833) In 1828 the U.S. passes new tariff laws. Why? South calls this an Abomination. Why John C. Calhoun persuades South Carolina to nullify the tariff. What does nullify mean? South Carolina threatens to secede and take military action. Henry Clay gets the U.S. government to lower the tariff, and South Carolina backs down.
The Compromise of 1850 Gold is discovered in California, and quickly becomes a free state. Why is the South upset? Henry Clay says that Cali will be a Free State, but U.S. passes the Fugitive Slave Act – allowing slaveholders to recapture runaway slaves. White people who were accused of hiding slaves could be held without an arrest warrant and no right to a jury trial. Why is the North angry? Abolishes the Slave Trade in Washington D.C.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom’s Cabin. She portrays slavery as cruel, and Uncle Tom (the main slave of the book) is beaten by his master, and eventually is killed. The North is sickened by what they read, but the South says it’s all false.
The Kansas Nebraska Act (1855) A bill passed by Congress allowing each territory to vote whether it should be slave or free. This is known as Popular Sovereignty. Why is it called Popular Sovereignty? Kansas wanted to be a free state, but thousands of angry Missourians crossed into Kansas and voted illegally. Anti-Slavery people from Kansas and proslavery Missourians started to kill each other. This was known as Bleeding Kansas.
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri, and his owner decided to move to Illinois, a free state. His owner died. Scott decided to sue for his freedom in Illinois, and the court agreed that Scott was a free man. However, Sanford, a Southern Lawyer decided to appeal the case to the Supreme Court. In the Supreme Court case, Dred Scott v. Sanford, the Court ruled against Scott.
Dred Scott Con’t The Court said that Dred Scott wasn’t a U.S. citizen, but only property. So he couldn’t sue for his freedom. In addition, the Court also ruled that Congress couldn’t ban slavery in any territories because that would violate the slaveholders property rights, protected by the fifth amendment. The Court therefore ruled the Missouri Compromise illegal.
Dred Scott Con’t The North was outraged by the decision, while the South cheered.
John Brown and Harpers Ferry (1859) John Brown was a white radical abolitionist. He wanted to inspire slaves to fight for their freedom. Brown, 13 whites and five blacks captured the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. They killed four Southerners. Brown was hung for his actions. But the North saw him as a hero, while the South was terrified, and started to form militias for the first time.
The Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln wins the election for of 1860. Before the election, the South says if Lincoln wins, then they will secede. South Carolina secedes first, then with the rest of the South, including Texas. In 1861, the South forms the Confederate States of America, and Jefferson Davis is elected President.