3What is a government?“A government is an institution through which society makes and enforces its public policies.” pg 4
4What is Public Policy?Public policy consists of all the things a government does.* taxes* defense* education* crime* healthcare* transportation
5What does a government need to carry out public policy?? POWEREvery government has 3 types of power1. legislative- the power to make lawand to frame public policies2. executive- the power to execute,enforce and administer law3. judicial- the power to interpret laws, their meaning and settle disputes in a society
6What is a State?A state is a body of people living in a defined territory and organized politically with the power to make and enforce laws.
74 characterizes of a State Population- must have people but no limited number.* San Marino-27,000 people* China 1.3 billion
82. Territory- must have land * San Marino- 24miles* Russia- 6.6 million
93. Sovereignty- the supreme and absolute power in its territory 3. Sovereignty- the supreme and absolute power in its territory. Must decide on domestic and foreign policy4. Government- every state has a government in order to avoid“the war of every man against every man”-Thomas Hobbes
10Petoria QuestionsExplain how Petoria qualifies as a state based on the 4 characteristic of a state1) Land2) population3) How does Petoria showsovereignty over its territory?4) What type of governmentdoes Petoria have?2) What public services provided by the American government were cut off from Petoria once it suceded from the U.S.?
12Origin of the StateThe Force Theory- person or group gained control of an area by use of force2. Evolutionary Theory- developed naturally out of the early family3. The Divine Right Theory- God gave those in power a right to rule4. Social Contract Theory- people agreed to give up certain rights to be protected by the state
13Different forms of government Democracy- rule by peopleDictatorship- those who rule are not held responsible to the people1. Oligarchy- a few rule2. Autocracy- a single person holdspower* all dictators are totalitarian leaders meaning????
14Types of GovernmentsUnitary Government- all power held by the single central powers of government. Does not need local governmentsExamples: China, United Kingdom
15Confederate Government- an alliance of independent states. very rare the European Union is the closest form of one today
16Federal Government- power of the government is divided between the central and local governments . Examples: The United States, Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany.
17What is the purpose of government?? Establish justiceDomestic peaceProvide for common defensePromote general welfareSecure liberty
18The 5 Democratic Concepts Recognition of the worth and dignity of EVERY person.Respect the equality of ALL peopleMajority rule with minority rightsThe acceptance to compromiseAn insistence upon the widest possible degree of individual freedom