What is Government? Government makes and enforces public policies. Government makes and enforces public policies. Government consists of lawmakers, administrators, and judges. Government consists of lawmakers, administrators, and judges.
Four Characteristics of a State Population Population A state consists of people Largest country – China – 1.3 billion Smallest country – Vatican – 800 people
Four Characteristics of a State Territory Territory A state must have land
Four Characteristics of a State Sovereignty Sovereignty Sovereign states determine their own form of government
Four Characteristics of a State Government Government Government consists of the machinery and personnel by which the state is ruled.
Origins of the State The Force Theory The Force Theory A person or group forced control over an area and people
Origins of the State The Evolutionary Theory The Evolutionary Theory States originated in the family
Origins of the State The Divine Right Theory The Divine Right Theory God gave individuals or groups the right to rule
Origins of the State The Social Contract Theory The Social Contract Theory People agreed to give up power to the state in return for the state’s service to the general well-being of the people.
The Purpose of Government Found in the Preamble of the United States Constitution Found in the Preamble of the United States Constitution To Form a More Perfect Union To Form a More Perfect Union In union there is strength To Establish Justice To Establish Justice The law should be administered reasonably, fairly, and impartially
The Purpose of Government To Insure Domestic Tranquility To Insure Domestic Tranquility Without order, people would live in anarchy Provide for the Common Defense Provide for the Common Defense The state’s security rests on wise defense and foreign policies
The Purpose of Government To Promote the General Welfare To Promote the General Welfare The state has a responsibility to provide a variety of public services To Secure the Blessings of Liberty To Secure the Blessings of Liberty Freedom is necessary for a democracy
Classifying Governments No two governments are alike No two governments are alike Governments are classified in order to analyze them Governments are classified in order to analyze them
Geographic Distribution of Power Unitary Government Unitary Government Power is held in a single, central agency Can create lower levels of government and can remove them at any time All final decisions are made by the central government Examples are Great Britain, France, Italy
Geographic Distribution of Power Federal Government Federal Government Powers are divided between a central agency and several local governments Each state government is specifically protected within a written constitution Both levels can make final decisions Examples are the US, Canada, Germany
Geographic Distribution of Power Confederate Government Confederate Government The central government has limited power with the most important authority reserved for member states States control the vast majority of the power Examples are the US under the Articles and the Confederate States of America
Legislature and Executive Presidential Government Presidential Government Executive and Legislative branches are independent and co-equal Cannot serve in both at the same time One cannot dissolve the other
Legislature and Executive Parliamentary government Parliamentary government Members of the Executive Branch are also members of the Legislative Branch One branch can remove the other if the need arises
Number Who Can Participate Dictatorship Dictatorship Participation in government is limited to the individual or group who rules Democracy Democracy The people hold the power and give consent to the government to rule
The Five Basic Concepts The Foundations of Democracy The Foundations of Democracy The fate of American democracy rests on the people’s acceptance of certain basic concepts. The acceptance of the basic concepts of democracy presents Americans with problems and challenges.
The Five Basic Concepts Fundamental Worth of the Individual Fundamental Worth of the Individual Democracy insists on the worth and dignity of all. Sometimes the welfare of one person must be subordinated to the interests of the many.
The Five Basic Concepts Equality of All Persons Equality of All Persons Democracy insists on the equality of opportunity. Democracy insists on equality before the law.
The Five Basic Concepts Majority Rule and Minority Rights Majority Rule and Minority Rights Democracy argues that the majority will be right more often than wrong. Democracy searches for satisfactory solutions to public problems. The majority must recognize the right of the minority to become the majority.
The Five Basic Concepts Necessity for Compromise Necessity for Compromise Compromise allows citizens to make public decisions. Compromise is not an end in itself but a means to reach a public goal.
The Five Basic Concepts Individual Freedom Individual Freedom Freedom cannot be absolute, or anarchy will result. American democracy strives to strike a balance between liberty and authority.