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Unit 1 Basic Political Theory and Historical Roots.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 Basic Political Theory and Historical Roots."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit 1 Basic Political Theory and Historical Roots

3 The Basic Unit The foundational political unit in the world is the state The foundational political unit in the world is the state Body of people in a territory with a government that has no higher authority Body of people in a territory with a government that has no higher authority Examples: Mexico, Russia, Canada, the United States are all states Examples: Mexico, Russia, Canada, the United States are all states

4 The 4 Characteristics of a State Population Population Territory Territory Sovereignty Sovereignty Government Government Vice-President Joe Biden

5 How Did States Evolve? Divine Right Divine Right 15 th through 18 th centuries, common thinking was that God gave certain people a divine right to rule over others 15 th through 18 th centuries, common thinking was that God gave certain people a divine right to rule over others

6 How Did States Evolve? Social Contract 1700s philosophical response to the idea of Divine Right Theory was developed by John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean Jacque Rousseau John Locke ( )

7 How Did States Evolve? Social Contract Free people decided to form states to keep themselves safe John Locke ( )

8 The Big Deal is: If people formed states to serve their own interests, then government exists to serve the people If people formed states to serve their own interests, then government exists to serve the people

9 Purpose of Government Based on the social contract theory, the purpose of American government is to: Based on the social contract theory, the purpose of American government is to: Form a More Perfect Union Form a More Perfect Union Establish Justice Establish Justice Insure Domestic Tranquility Insure Domestic Tranquility Provide for the Common Defense Provide for the Common Defense Promote the General Welfare Promote the General Welfare Secure the Blessings of Liberty Secure the Blessings of Liberty *In case youre curious, this is the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution* *In case youre curious, this is the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution*

10 Different Forms of Government Classified based on Who Can Participate Democracy - Government of the people, by the people, for the people Direct - people make policy themselves Indirect - people vote for others who will make policy (also called republic)

11 Different Forms of Government Classified based on Who Can Participate Dictatorship – government is not accountable to anyone Autocracy – single person holds unlimited power Oligarchy – a small, self-appointed group rules

12 Different Forms of Government Classified based on Geographic Distribution of Power Classified based on Geographic Distribution of Power Unitary – one national government, smaller lower units have little or no say in policy Unitary – one national government, smaller lower units have little or no say in policy Examples : Israel, Great Britain, France Examples : Israel, Great Britain, France

13 Different Forms of Government Classified based on Geographic Distribution of Power Classified based on Geographic Distribution of Power Federal – smaller units share power with the central national government Federal – smaller units share power with the central national government Examples : U.S., Mexico, Canada, Australia Examples : U.S., Mexico, Canada, Australia

14 Different Forms of Government Classified based on Geographic Distribution of Power Classified based on Geographic Distribution of Power Confederal – smaller regional governments hold the most power, united by a weak central government Confederal – smaller regional governments hold the most power, united by a weak central government Examples : European Union, Confederate States Examples : European Union, Confederate States

15 Different Forms of Government Classified based on Relationship between Legislative (people writing the laws) and Executive (people enforcing the laws) Classified based on Relationship between Legislative (people writing the laws) and Executive (people enforcing the laws) Presidential – voters separately elect Executive and Legislative branch members Presidential – voters separately elect Executive and Legislative branch members

16 Different Forms of Government Classified based on Relationship between Legislative and Executive Branches Classified based on Relationship between Legislative and Executive Branches Parliamentary – Executive is chosen from the Legislative branch Parliamentary – Executive is chosen from the Legislative branch

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18 Basic Concepts of Democracy Worth of the Individual Worth of the Individual Equality of All Persons Equality of All Persons Not necessarily equal conditions, but strive for equal opportunity Not necessarily equal conditions, but strive for equal opportunity

19 Basic Concepts of Democracy Majority Rule, Minority Rights Majority Rule, Minority Rights Necessity of Compromise Necessity of Compromise Individual Freedom Individual Freedom

20 Free Enterprise Free Enterprise is the economic system associated with most democracies Free Enterprise is the economic system associated with most democracies

21 Free Enterprise Four factors of a free enterprise system: Four factors of a free enterprise system: Private ownership Private ownership Individual initiative Individual initiative Profit Profit Competition Competition

22 How it Works The Law of Supply and Demand The Law of Supply and Demand When supply is high or demand is low, prices are low When supply is high or demand is low, prices are low When supply is low or demand is high, prices are high When supply is low or demand is high, prices are high

23 Where does Government Fit in? Government always plays a role in regulating an economy Government always plays a role in regulating an economy Governments can fully control an economy, or let it be free Governments can fully control an economy, or let it be free The U.S. uses a mixed economy, to protect the public and preserve private ownership The U.S. uses a mixed economy, to protect the public and preserve private ownership


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