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People and Government Chapter 1.

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Presentation on theme: "People and Government Chapter 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 People and Government Chapter 1

2 The State A political community that occupies a define territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher authority. Aristotle was one of the first students of government It takes 4 aspects to make a state Population Territory Sovereignty Government

3 Population A State must have people.
The smallest state in the world has 22,000 people. Can anyone guess what it would be. San Marino

4 Territory Known land and recognized boundaries.
San Marino = 24 sq. miles Russia = 7 million sq. miles

5 Sovereignty A state has supreme and absolute power with in its own territory. Each state decides it's own foreign and state policies Choose their own form of government States with in the US are not sovereign.

6 Origins of the State Political scientists don't really know how states formed, however there are 4 theories that have emerged. 1.  The Force Theory 2.  The Evolutionary Theory 3.  The Divine Right Theory 4.  The Social Contract Theory

7 The Evolutionary Theory
Developed naturally out of early family 1.  1 person was in charge of a family 2.  Over years original family became a network of families (clans) 3.  Clans became tribes 4.  When a tribe transformed into an agriculture society from a nomadic society, the state was born

8 The Divine Right Theory
The State was created by God and the God had given those of royal birth the "Divine right to rule." People had to obey their ruler like he or she was God

9 The Force Theory One person or groups claimed control over an area and forced all with in it to submit to that person's or groups rule. When rule was established the 4 basic elements were presented

10 The Social Contract Theory
Earliest humans lived in a "State of Nature" There was no government that existed. people took by force "Survival of the Fittest" Humans overcame their unpleasant conditions by agreeing to develop a state The most influential in the founding of the US

11 The Purpose of Government
1.  To maintain social order 2.  To provide public services 3.  To provide for national security and a common defense 4.  To provide for and control the economic system

12 The Formation of Governments

13 Government Systems Unitary System Federal System
Centralized Government All powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency. Example: Great Britain, France,  and Italy The power of government are divided between a central government and several local governments. Example: United States Confederacy: a loose union of independent states. 

14 Constitutions and Government
Constitution is a plan that provides the rules for government Purposes Sets out ideals that people bound by the constitution believe in and share Establishes the basis structure of government and defines powers and duties Provides the supreme law for the country

15 Statement of Goals Preamble- a statement that sets forth the goals and purposes to be served by the government “We the people of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Unites States of America.”

16 List, Describe and Give an example of each one of the types of government
Chapter 1 Section 3

17 Autocracy Power and authority to rule are in the hands of a single individual. Totalitarian & dictatorship: Power is in a single leader or group of leaders. Example: Hitler Monarchy: A King, Queen, or emperor exercise the supreme powers of government. Example: Saudi Arabia Constitutional Monarchs: Monarchs share the power of government with elected officials. Example: Great Britain

18 Oligarchy Any system of government in which a small group holds power.
Communist countries China They might hold elections, but offer only one candidate, or control the election results in other ways.

19 Democracy Is any system of government in which rule is by the people.
People hold the power. Direct Democracy: the people govern themselves by voting on issues individually as citizens. Representative Democracy: People elect representative and give them the responsibility an power to make laws and conduct government

20 Economic Theories

21 Capitalism 5 characteristics 1. Private Ownership 2. Free Enterprise
3. Competition among business 4. Freedom of choice 5. Possibility of profits

22 Capitalism Laissez-faire- Government should keep its hands off of the economy. Free Market Capitalism- Buyers and sellers were free to make ultimate economic decisions in the market place Mixed Market Economy- Free enterprise is an economy in which free enterprise is combined with and supported by government decisions in the marketplace. Governments role is to protect public interest. America is an example of this

23 Socialism Government owns the means of productions, determines the use of resources, distributes the product and wedges, and provides social services such as welfare, education, and health. Goals 1. Distribution of wealth and economic opportunity for all 2. Society controls through its government 3. Public ownership of most land, factories, and other means of production

24 Democratic Socialism People have basic human rights and have some control over government officials through free election and multiparty systems. Great Britain

25 Communism The central government directs all major economic decisions
Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto Population was divided between two social classes Bourgeoisies (owners of the means of productions) and Proletariat (workers) Goal of his revolution was government ownership of the means of production and distribution.

26 Communism as a command Economy
Decisions are made by upper levels of government and handed down to the people. State owns the land, natural resources, industry, banks and transportation facilities. The state also controls all means of communication including newspapers, magazines, and televisions, radios and motion picture production. Example: Peoples Republic of China

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