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Chapter 18 Renewing the Sectional Struggle, 1848–1854.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Renewing the Sectional Struggle, 1848–1854."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 Renewing the Sectional Struggle, 1848–1854

2 I. The Popular Sovereignty Panacea Essential Question – “What should be done about slavery in the Mexican Cession?” Political parties – Whig and Democrat chose to side-step the slavery-expansion question Election of 1848 – Democrat - Gen. Lewis Cass – for Popular Sovereignty – Whig - Gen. Zachary Taylor – won election – had no official position on slavery question – Free Soil Party – Martin Van Buren – clearly against expansion of slavery

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5 III. “Californy Gold” Sutter’s Mill (1848) gold was discovered 1849 – “Forty-Niners” flooded to California More people made fortunes by providing things to accompany the miners Result of the gold rush – California applied to become a free state which threatened the slave-to-free balance

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7 IV. Sectional Balance and the Underground Railroad By 1850 – South and slavery in control – President Taylor was slaveowner – South had equality in Senate and could block unwanted laws – Constitution favored the South – esp. after Dred Scott South felt under attack over – California annexation – Texas land dispute with Mexico – Northern abolitionism – Fugitive Slave Law being ignored by North – Underground Railroad – Harriet Tubman

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11 V. Twilight of the Senatorial Giants Three leading senators: – Henry Clay, the Great Compromiser, (supported by young Senator Stephen Douglas) urged both sides to compromise and make concessions – Southern spokesman John C. Calhoun argued for states’ rights, noninterference with slavery, enforcement of Fugitive Slave Law, and balance of free-to-slave states – Northern spokesman Daniel Webster in his famous “Seventh of March” speech urged North to compromise because most of Mexican cession not suitable for growing cotton

12 VI. Deadlock and Danger on Capitol Hill “Young Guard of politicians led by William H. Seward strong against slavery and wanted Americans to follow a “higher law” Chance for compromise seemed bleak

13 VII. Breaking the Congressional Logjam President Taylor died suddenly and was replaced by James Fillmore who was more open to compromise Henry Clay’s Compromise of 1850 emerged Clay, Webster, and Douglas urged North to compromise Southern “fire-eaters” were against compromise but Compromise passed

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16 VIII. Balancing the Compromise Scales North got: California as free state, Texas gave up disputed lands, slave trade banned but still legal in District of Columbia South got: popular sovereignty in Mexican cession (looked good but bad because land not suitable for raising cotton), payment to Texas for disputed land, tougher Fugitive Slave Law Fugitive Slave Law – most controversial – slaves not given “due process”, officials paid more for slave’s return than for freedom North passed “Personal Liberty Laws” which gave officials right to refuse to chase and return slaves – Fugitive Slave Law either ignored or not enforced North got better of Compromise of 1850 and it bought time for North to build up resources

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19 IX. Defeat and Doom for the Whigs Election of 1852 Democrats nominated Franklin Pierce Whigs nominated Gen. Winfield Scott, hero of Mexican War – slavery issue split the Whig party Free Soil Party – hurt Scott and gained 5% of Northern vote Pierce won in a landslide

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21 X. Expansionist Stirrings South of the Border California gold rush created interest in Central America where British influence was strong US-British tensions eased by Clayton-Bulwer Treaty which gave neither US or Britain control over area with other’s agreement President Pierce sent delegates to meet with Spain, England, and France to make a deal for US to purchase Cuba Ostend Manifesto – US would pay $120 million for Cuba but details leaked out causing Pierce to back away from deal

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23 XI. The Allure of Asia America south to expand influence in Asia President Tyler sent Caleb Cushing to China who reached agreement with China granting US “most favored nation” status which opened up trade US sent Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan where he got Japan to open to trade using a mix of diplomacy and threat

24 XII. Pacific Railroad Promoters and the Gadsden Purchase Americans wanted transcontinental railroad to link east and west coasts Both North and South wanted railroad but South was chosen as best but one problem – portion of land ran through Mexico Gadsden Purchase bought southern chunk of present Arizona and New Mexico for $10 million

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27 XIII. Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Scheme Stephen Douglas wanted railroad in North Nebraska territory was above Missouri Compromise line and would enter as free state Douglas proposed Kansas-Nebraska Act that would: – Repeal Missouri Compromise – Slavery would be decided by Popular Sovereignty – Divided into two parts: Kansas and Nebraska – Opened up both territories to Popular Sovereignty

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30 XIV. Congress Legislates a Civil War Kansas-Nebraska Act split the nation Re-opened the slavery issue Fugitive Slave Law was left to die in the North which infuriated South Democrats were split over the slavery issue Republican Party was born

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