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CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR.

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Presentation on theme: "CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR."— Presentation transcript:

1 CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR

2 FOUR MAIN CAUSES 1. Slavery 2. Constitutional Disputes
Moral v. Political issue 2. Constitutional Disputes Federal government v. states rights 3. Economic differences Industrialization v. agriculture 4. Political extremism-new parties

3 WESTERN TERRITORIES Free Soil Movement-believed slavery should be prohibited in the Mexican Cession South viewed any attempts to restrict slavery as a violation of their Constitutional rights Popular Sovereignty Lewis Cass Let the people in the territory decide whether or not to have slaves

4 ELECTION OF 1848 Democrats-Lewis Cass Whigs-Zachary Taylor
Mexican War hero Free Soil-Martin Van Buren Taylor wins

5 ZACHARY TAYLOR

6 CALIFORNIA 1849-Beginning of gold rush 100,000 settlers
No law and order Drafts a state constitution that banned slavery Taylor supports annexation South threatens to secede Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay

7 COMPROMISE OF 1850 1. Admit California as free state
2. Divided Mexican Cession into two territories (NM & UT) 3. Popular Sovereignty 4. Disputed land between Texas and New Mexico went to New Mexico 5. Federal Government assumes $10 million of Texas debt 6. Slave trade banned in Washington DC 7. New Fugitive Slave Law

8 COMPROMISE OF 1850 Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, & John C. Calhoun-major debates All die before decided Pres. Taylor (opposed) also dies Millard Fillmore (supported) quickly passes Compromise Most controversial aspects-popular sovereignty & fugitive slave law

9 MILLARD FILLMORE 1850-1853 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty 1850
Canal in Central America

10 ELECTION OF 1852 Whigs-Winfield Scott Democrats-Franklin Pierce
Mexican War hero Ignored slavery issue-focused on internal improvements Democrats-Franklin Pierce Supported Fugitive Slave Law-accepted in south Pierce won all but four states Decline in Whig party

11 FRANKLIN PIERCE

12 KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT Need a transcontinental railroad
Stephen Douglas (senator from IL) wants it to go through Chicago Needs the support of southern politicians 1854-Kansas-Nebraska Act Popular Sovereignty in the Kansas & Nebraska Territories Repeals the Missouri Compromise line

13 NEW POLITICAL PARTY Republican Party 1854
Created in direct response to the passing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act Made up of Free-Soilers, anti-slavery Whigs, & anti-slavery Democrats Called for the repeal of the Kansas-Nebraska Act & the Fugitive Slave Law Against the spread of slavery to the territories

14 OSTEND MANIFESTO Pierce instructs the ambassador to Spain to buy Cuba from the Spanish They turn down offer Pierce orders James Buchanan to write document (Ostend Manifesto) If Spain does not sell Cuba, the US will take by force Press finds out and leaks idea to American Public Popular idea in South Angers North & West Never given to Spain

15 ELECTION OF 1856 Republicans-John C. Fremont Democrats-James Buchanan
Platform-no expansion of slavery, free homesteads, & protective tariff Democrats-James Buchanan Not connected with the Kansas-Nebraska Act “Know Nothings”-Millard Fillmore Won 20% of popular vote Buchanan wins the popular & electoral vote Fremont carried 11 of 16 free states

16 JAMES BUCHANAN

17 “BLEEDING KANSAS” Aftermath of Kansas-Nebraska Act
Both sides send in settlers Violence erupts Two capitals Lecompton-proslavery Topeka-antislavery Democratic party splits between north & south

18 DRED SCOTT V. SANFORD Dred Scott-slave taken to live in a free state, sued for his freedom Appealed to the Supreme Court Decision given in March 1857 1. Dred Scott had no right to sue-not a citizen, furthermore all blacks were not citizens 2. Congress had no right to take away property, if slaves property, then Congress could not exclude slavery from any state 3. Repealed the Missouri Compromise Southerners delighted Northerners shocked-blamed all Democrats

19 ELECTION OF 1858 Congressional election Lincoln-Douglas Debates
“House Divided” speech Republicans win many seats Bad news for the south

20 RAID AT HARPERS FERRY October 1859-Virginia
John Brown led a slave revolt Tried to take over federal arsenal Killed 7 Federal troops led by Gen. Robert E. Lee captured Brown & 6 others tried & hanged Seen as martyr

21 ELECTION OF 1860 Republicans-Abraham Lincoln Democrats split
Northern-Stephen Douglas Southern-John Breckinridge New Party-Constitutional Union-John Bell South threatened to secede if Lincoln elected Lincoln carried every free state 59% of electoral vote 40% of popular vote Breckinridge carried the deep south

22 SECESSION Dec. 1860-South Carolina secedes
Within 6 weeks-7 more states secede Feb Created the Confederate States of America Established Montgomery, AL as capital Elected Jefferson Davis as President

23 CRITTENDEN COMPROMISE
President did nothing to stop the southern secession Last ditch effort by Congress Crittenden Compromise Reenact the Missouri Compromise line in west Lincoln did not support


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