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Chapter 18 Renewing the Sectional Struggle

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1 Chapter 18 Renewing the Sectional Struggle

2 Popular Sovereignty and the Mexican Session
Debate over what to do with the Mexican Cession WILMOT PROVISO (1848)--sought a Mexican Cession free of slavery Passed by the House Block by Southern Senators SIGNIFICANCE: Brought slavery into the front of American politics from here on until the Civil War DESCRIBE THE WILMOT PROVISO AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE TO THE DEBATE ON SLAVERY

3 “Popular Sovereignty”
Emerged as a possible way to avoid the issue LEWIS CASS--Became Democratic nominee for election of 1848 Cass known as the “Father of Popular Sovereignty Says people of a territory should decide for themselves whether to be slave state or not DESCRIBE WHAT POPULAR SOVERIGNTY IS AND THE HISTORY BEHIND IT

4 Election of 1848 Whigs nominate Zachary Taylor
“Hero of Buena Vista Neutral on slave issue, but owned slaves Free Soil Party nominates Van Buren Mixture of northern antislavery Whigs, Democrats, and Liberty Party members in North Supported Wilmot Proviso “Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men” Sign of the coming of the Republican Party 6 years later!!! ANALYZE THE ELECTION OF 1848

5 Results of Election of 1848 Taylor wins the election
Free soilers won no states and did not impact the outcome of the election

6 Issue of California Gold discovered in 1848 at Sutters Mill
By 1849, masses of people come to northern California Gold essentially paved the way for rapid economic growth in California CA drafted a Constitution in 1849 Excluded slavery Asked Congress for admission as a state Southerners opposed CA statehood; free state threat DISCUSS HOW THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA CAME INTO BEING AND THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH IT B/C OF SLAVERY

7 Underground Railroad Chain of homes that hid slaves escaping to Canada
Harriet Tubman Most famous person involved in Underground Railroad Personal Liberty Laws Passed by many Northern states which prohibited state officials from assisting anyone trying to capture runaway slaves SIGNIFICANCE: Southerners demand a new stronger fugitive slave law DISCUSS THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD AND HOW IT ALL WORKED

8 Get them out of the South!!!

9 Why Is the South so Upset???
Issues of Concern for Southerners CA would tip balance in Senate New Mexico and Utah territories look to be free states Northerners demanded abolition of slavery in Washington DC Loss of fugitive slaves When CA applied for statehood, southern “fire-eater's” threatened secession DESCRIBE WHY THE SOUTH WAS SO UPSET BY THE MID-1850’S REGARDING THE NORTH

10 Attempt at Compromise The Great Triumvirate Henry Clay
Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster make an attempt to end the crisis Henry Clay North should pass a more effective fugitive slave law Supported by Stephen Douglas, the “Little Giant” COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE VIEWS REGARDING SLAVERY IN THE LATE 1840’S BY HENRY CLAY, JOHN C. CALHOUN, AND DANIEL WEBSTER

11 John C. Calhoun Daniel Webster Felt Clay’s position was inadequate
Leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give South rights as a minority, and restore political balance Daniel Webster Supported Clay Gives famous “7th of March Speech” Urged reasonable concession to the South Opposed Congress legislating in the territories

12 I won’t show the other side of my face. Why?
SIGNIFICANCE: Turned the North towards Compromise Abolitionists branded Webster a traitor William H. Seward Opposed granting concessions to the South Stated Christian legislators must obey God’s moral law first “Slavery shouldn’t be allowed in western territories due to a ‘higher law’ than the Constitution” WHO WAS WILLIAM SEWARD AND WHY WAS HE IMPORTANT IN THE SLAVERY DEBATE?

13 Pop-FACT Compromise of 1850 Popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession
Fugitive Slave law toughened Abolition of slave trade in Washington DC California admitted as a free state Texas given $10 million for disputed Mexican territory Pop-FACT WHAT WERE THE MAJOR CONDITIONS OF THE COMPROMISE OF 1850?

14 Election of 1852 Democrats Whigs Nominated Franklin Pierce
Sympathetic to Southern views Acceptable to slavery wing of the party Campaign in favor of Compromise of 1850 Whigs Nominate General Winfield Scott Party fatally split Southern Whigs supported Fugitive Slave Law but doubted Scotts willingness to hold Compromise Antislavery Whigs supported Scott but hated his support of the Fugitive Slave Law DESCRIBE IN DETAIL THE ELECTION OF 1852

15 Expansionism Under Pierce
“Young America” Pierce wanted to extend “Manifest Destiny” overseas Wanted to build a canal in Central America Clayton-Bulwer Treaty--US and GB agreed that neither side would build and monopolize a new canal w/o the others consent Issues with Asia Signed trade agreements with China Sent US ships to force Japan to open up trade with US DISCUSS HOW PRESIDENT FRANKLIN PIERCE ATTEMPTED TO EXTEND MANIFEST DESTINY TO THE WORLD?

16 Cuba Polk had offered Spain money for Cuba, Spain refused
South wanted Cuba for slavery OSTEND MANIFESTO--US secretly demanded Cuba for $130 million. If Spain refused, use force Plan backfired b/c of angry Northerners who saw it as a slaveholders plot

17 Gadsden Purchase Congress wanted a transcontinental railroad built
Question should it be in the North or South? Best route seemed to be below the Mexican border In 1853, US purchased Mesilla Valley (in southern New Mexico and Arizona) from Santa Anna for $10 million WHAT WAS THE GADSDEN PURCHASE AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?

18 Result: South now had the advantage

19 Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 Most important short term cause of the Civil War Stephen Douglas proposed splitting Nebraska territory into two states: Kansas and Nebraska Slavery issue would be based on popular sovereignty Kansas would probably be slave, Nebraska free Problems 36-30 line created by Compromise of 1820 prohibited slavery Kansas was above it Solution? Repeal Compromise of 1820 Fully supported by Southerners DISCUSS WHAT THE KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT SAID AND WHY IT WAS SO CONTROVERSIAL


21 Reaction to Kansas-Nebraska Act?
Northerners shocked; saw Compromise of 1820 as sacred pact Northern reactions????? Refused to honor Fugitive Slave Law Antislavery movement grew stronger North unwilling to compromise again

22 Birth of Republican Party
Formed in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act Included Whigs, northern Democrats, Free-Soilers, and Know-Nothings Lincoln came out of retirement and ran for the Senate Became nations 2nd major political party overnight Republican Party not allowed in the South DISCUSS THE BIRTH OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY AND WHY IT WAS FORMED

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