2 Popular Sovereignty and the Mexican Session Debate over what to do with the Mexican CessionWILMOT PROVISO (1848)--sought a Mexican Cession free of slaveryPassed by the HouseBlock by Southern SenatorsSIGNIFICANCE: Brought slavery into the front of American politics from here on until the Civil WarDESCRIBE THE WILMOT PROVISO AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE TO THE DEBATE ON SLAVERY
3 “Popular Sovereignty” Emerged as a possible way to avoid the issueLEWIS CASS--Became Democratic nominee for election of 1848Cass known as the “Father of Popular SovereigntySays people of a territory should decide for themselves whether to be slave state or notDESCRIBE WHAT POPULAR SOVERIGNTY IS AND THE HISTORY BEHIND IT
4 Election of 1848 Whigs nominate Zachary Taylor “Hero of Buena VistaNeutral on slave issue, but owned slavesFree Soil Party nominates Van BurenMixture of northern antislavery Whigs, Democrats, and Liberty Party members in NorthSupported Wilmot Proviso“Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men”Sign of the coming of the Republican Party 6 years later!!!ANALYZE THE ELECTION OF 1848
5 Results of Election of 1848 Taylor wins the election Free soilers won no states and did not impact the outcome of the election
6 Issue of California Gold discovered in 1848 at Sutters Mill By 1849, masses of people come to northern CaliforniaGold essentially paved the way for rapid economic growth in CaliforniaCA drafted a Constitution in 1849Excluded slaveryAsked Congress for admission as a stateSoutherners opposed CA statehood; free state threatDISCUSS HOW THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA CAME INTO BEING AND THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH IT B/C OF SLAVERY
7 Underground Railroad Chain of homes that hid slaves escaping to Canada Harriet TubmanMost famous person involved in Underground RailroadPersonal Liberty LawsPassed by many Northern states which prohibited state officials from assisting anyone trying to capture runaway slavesSIGNIFICANCE: Southerners demand a new stronger fugitive slave lawDISCUSS THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD AND HOW IT ALL WORKED
9 Why Is the South so Upset??? Issues of Concern for SouthernersCA would tip balance in SenateNew Mexico and Utah territories look to be free statesNortherners demanded abolition of slavery in Washington DCLoss of fugitive slavesWhen CA applied for statehood, southern “fire-eater's” threatened secessionDESCRIBE WHY THE SOUTH WAS SO UPSET BY THE MID-1850’S REGARDING THE NORTH
10 Attempt at Compromise The Great Triumvirate Henry Clay Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster make an attempt to end the crisisHenry ClayNorth should pass a more effective fugitive slave lawSupported by Stephen Douglas, the “Little Giant”COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE VIEWS REGARDING SLAVERY IN THE LATE 1840’S BY HENRY CLAY, JOHN C. CALHOUN, AND DANIEL WEBSTER
11 John C. Calhoun Daniel Webster Felt Clay’s position was inadequate Leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give South rights as a minority, and restore political balanceDaniel WebsterSupported ClayGives famous “7th of March Speech”Urged reasonable concession to the SouthOpposed Congress legislating in the territories
12 I won’t show the other side of my face. Why? SIGNIFICANCE: Turned the North towards CompromiseAbolitionists branded Webster a traitorWilliam H. SewardOpposed granting concessions to the SouthStated Christian legislators must obey God’s moral law first“Slavery shouldn’t be allowed in western territories due to a ‘higher law’ than the Constitution”WHO WAS WILLIAM SEWARD AND WHY WAS HE IMPORTANT IN THE SLAVERY DEBATE?
13 Pop-FACT Compromise of 1850 Popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession Fugitive Slave law toughenedAbolition of slave trade in Washington DCCalifornia admitted as a free stateTexas given $10 million for disputed Mexican territoryPop-FACTWHAT WERE THE MAJOR CONDITIONS OF THE COMPROMISE OF 1850?
14 Election of 1852 Democrats Whigs Nominated Franklin Pierce Sympathetic to Southern viewsAcceptable to slavery wing of the partyCampaign in favor of Compromise of 1850WhigsNominate General Winfield ScottParty fatally splitSouthern Whigs supported Fugitive Slave Law but doubted Scotts willingness to hold CompromiseAntislavery Whigs supported Scott but hated his support of the Fugitive Slave LawDESCRIBE IN DETAIL THE ELECTION OF 1852
15 Expansionism Under Pierce “Young America”Pierce wanted to extend “Manifest Destiny” overseasWanted to build a canal in Central AmericaClayton-Bulwer Treaty--US and GB agreed that neither side would build and monopolize a new canal w/o the others consentIssues with AsiaSigned trade agreements with ChinaSent US ships to force Japan to open up trade with USDISCUSS HOW PRESIDENT FRANKLIN PIERCE ATTEMPTED TO EXTEND MANIFEST DESTINY TO THE WORLD?
16 Cuba Polk had offered Spain money for Cuba, Spain refused South wanted Cuba for slaveryOSTEND MANIFESTO--US secretly demanded Cuba for $130 million. If Spain refused, use forcePlan backfired b/c of angry Northerners who saw it as a slaveholders plot
17 Gadsden Purchase Congress wanted a transcontinental railroad built Question should it be in the North or South?Best route seemed to be below the Mexican borderIn 1853, US purchased Mesilla Valley (in southern New Mexico and Arizona) from Santa Anna for $10 millionWHAT WAS THE GADSDEN PURCHASE AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
19 Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854Most important short term cause of the Civil WarStephen Douglas proposed splitting Nebraska territory into two states: Kansas and NebraskaSlavery issue would be based on popular sovereigntyKansas would probably be slave, Nebraska freeProblems36-30 line created by Compromise of 1820 prohibited slaveryKansas was above itSolution? Repeal Compromise of 1820Fully supported by SouthernersDISCUSS WHAT THE KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT SAID AND WHY IT WAS SO CONTROVERSIAL
21 Reaction to Kansas-Nebraska Act? Northerners shocked; saw Compromise of 1820 as sacred pactNorthern reactions?????Refused to honor Fugitive Slave LawAntislavery movement grew strongerNorth unwilling to compromise again
22 Birth of Republican Party Formed in response to the Kansas-Nebraska ActIncluded Whigs, northern Democrats, Free-Soilers, and Know-NothingsLincoln came out of retirement and ran for the SenateBecame nations 2nd major political party overnightRepublican Party not allowed in the SouthDISCUSS THE BIRTH OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY AND WHY IT WAS FORMED