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1 MOTIVATION. 2 Motivation A psychological concept concerned with strength and direction of work-related behaviours to influence the quality and quantity.

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Presentation on theme: "1 MOTIVATION. 2 Motivation A psychological concept concerned with strength and direction of work-related behaviours to influence the quality and quantity."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 MOTIVATION

2 2 Motivation A psychological concept concerned with strength and direction of work-related behaviours to influence the quality and quantity of performance output An inner drive, impulse or intention that causes a person to act in a certain way or to achieve a certain goal Getting others to do something because they want to

3 3 Motivation Theory (Mayo and Hawthorne Studies ( ) Physical surroundings affected output Workers worked harder when someone took an interest in what they were doing

4 4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1942) Growth Personal Development Accomplishment Talents fully used Creativity Self Respect Respect of others Autonomy/Responsibility Appreciation Recognition Achievement Sense of belonging Giving friendship Receiving friendship Social activities Protection from Danger, Threat, Deprivation Security Food, Drink, Air, Warmth, Shelter, Sleep Physiological Safety Social Self Esteem Self Actualization

5 5 Three Needs Theory (McClelland) Need for achievement drive to excel Need for power make others behave your way Need for affiliation desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

6 6 Expectancy Theory People act according to an expected outcome and the attractiveness of that outcome. They believe that similar effort and performance should be met with similar rewards.

7 7 Motivation What motivates you? What demotivates you?

8 8 What Motivates Young Managers? Personal growth Autonomy Pleasure Entrusted responsibilities New situations to handle Diversity Stability Remuneration Motivation Survey, 2002

9 9 What Actually Motivates People? Positive reinforcement Clear goals/targets Meeting expectations Social learning-working with others Participation – being involved and recognised Being able to do jobs that are interesting, necessary and valued

10 10 Increasing Motivation and Performance: 1.Diagnose work performance problems 2.Enhance individuals’ abilities 3.Foster a motivating work environment 4.Introduce an effective motivation programme: Establish clear performance expectations Remove obstacles to performance Reinforce performance-enhancing behaviour Provide salient rewards Use an equitable process Provide timely rewards and accurate feedback Dealing with Poor Performance

11 11 “3 R’s” Strategies for Modifying Behaviour + Reprimand Reinforce Redirect Discipline Reward - 0 Unacceptable Behaviour Acceptable Behaviour Exceptional Behaviour Dealing with Poor Performance

12 12 Guidelines for Improving Behaviour Reprimand 1.Identify the specific inappropriate behaviour. Give examples. Indicate that the action must stop. 2.Point out the impact of the problem on the performance of others, on the team’s mission, and so forth. 3.Ask questions about causes and explore remedies. Redirect 4.Describe the behaviours or standards you expect. Make sure the individual understands and agrees that these are reasonable. 5.Ask if the individual will comply. 6.Be appropriately supportive. Reinforce 7.Identify rewards that are salient to the individual. 8.Link the attainment of desirable outcomes with incremental, continuous improvement. 9.Reward(including praise) all improvements in performance in a timely and honest manner. Dealing with Poor Performance

13 13 Why is recreation is preferred over work? Goals are more clearly defined Scorekeeping is more ObjectiveIt is clear to everyone when you score DynamicYou can change your performance to improve your score. Everyone always knows the score ComparativeIt can easily be compared against a standard. Feedback is more frequent, personal, and accurate Participants have a greater degree of choice regarding the type of reward they receive and the type of activity in which they engage to get a desired reward. The rules of the game don’t change, and everyone plays by the same rules. The relationship between effort and performance is clearer. Performance is measured and clearly attached to reward. Point to Ponder

14 14 Create the characteristics of a motivating environment: Employees understand links between effort and performance Performance requirements are expressed as specific, hard, attainable goals Employees participate in setting targets So, what do I do now?

15 15 Create the characteristics of a motivating environment: Feedback to employees is regular, informative and easy to interpret Rewards are seen as equitable and tailored to individual requirements and preferences Jobs are designed to maximise: skill variety, significance of task, autonomy and opportunities for learning and growth. So, what do I do now?

16 16 Nine Laws of Motivation You have to be motivated to motivate Everybody has a motivational fuse Motivation requires a goal Challenge only motivates if you can win Seeing potential for personal growth motivates Motivation requires recognition Participation motivates Group belonging motivates Motivation, once established, never lasts as the environment keeps changing. “Motivate to Win”, Richard Denny, 2002


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