2TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION: Conduct an AmbushCONDITION: Given instruction in a field environment at Skytop with rubber ducks, LBE, and slide handoutsSTANDARD: Demonstrate a basic knowledge of ambush operations by conduction a mock ambush onsite
3AMBUSHA surprise attack from concealed position on a moving or temporarily halted target.
4CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AMBUSH SurpriseViolence of ActionPredetermined Kill ZoneCoordinated AssaultPlanned WithdrawalThere were always 5 characteristics/principles of the ambush. I’ll be damned if I can find them in a reference anywhere now. This looks good to me, but I ain’t swearin’ by it. So, if you don’t like this slide, or if you have a better answer, change it, delete it, whatever.
5PHASES OF THE AMBUSH Leader’s Recon Occupation (NLT Time in OPORD) ExecutionWithdrawalDissemination of InformationWe will discuss the leader’s recon in detail during the technique portion of this class.It is important to realize that the NLT specified in the OPORD is achieved once the ambush is emplaced, ready to execute. The ambush does not have to actually occur by that time, as the enemy controls when, or if, he arrives in your kill zone.Example: “2nd Platoon attacks to ambush to destroy enemy dismounted patrols vicinity EG NLT OCT03 in order to deny unit infiltration in zone.” The ambush must be emplaced, positions camouflaged, soldiers alert and observing noise, light and movement discipline by The actual attack may not occur for hours, if ever.
6OPERATIONAL TERMSKill Zone – a defined area on the ground in which fires will be concentrated to inflict maximum damage to the enemy in the shortest amount of time.Assault Element – seizes and secures the objective and protects the special teams as they complete their assigned actions on the objective (OBJ).Some of these definitions are in my words, some are taken from doctrinal manuals.
7OPERATIONAL TERMSSecurity Element – the portion of the unit tasked with ensuring that no enemy enters or leaves the kill zone once the ambush is initiated. Also provides early warning to friendly elements.Support Element – the portion of the unit tasked with providing support by fire for the assault element.Remember that Support Element also includes indirect fire assets allocated to the ambush.
8OPERATIONAL TERMSSpecial Teams – sub-elements task organized to perform specific tasks during AOBJEPW/Search Team – designated to search enemy bodies for PIR and collect and process enemy prisonersDemolition Team – designated to destroy enemy equipment not to be taken from the objectiveAid/Litter Team – designated to provide first aid to casualties (both friendly and enemy) and assist the platoon medic in triage, treatment and movement of casualtiesUsing AOBJ (actions on the objective) for the first time here. Be ready to answer questions on this. AOBJ begins in the ORP and ends with the dissemination of information back at the ORP.We will discuss actual use and composition of these teams in detail during the technique portion of this class.
9OPERATIONAL TERMSObjective Rally Point (ORP) – a halt out of sight, smell, sound and small arms range of the objective from which final preparations are made, reconnaissance of the objective is conducted and information is disseminated.The ORP should be on a recognizable piece of terrain, as it may need to be found on the run in hours of darkness (upon return from the objective). It should be easy to defend for a short period of time. It should allow for the movement of personnel within the ORP to conduct final mission preparations. The ORP is normally reconnoitered before occupation and is occupied using a rehearsed technique (part of the platoon SOP). Always plan for an alternate ORP in the event the first choice becomes untenable.
10OPERATIONAL TERMSRelease Point (RP) – location between the objective and the ORP from which surveillance of the OBJ can be maintained and at which subordinate elements (Assault, Security, Support) can be released from or to centralized control.This is the place from which the surveillance team will observe the objective. During the occupation phase of the ambush, units will halt here awaiting their turn to move onto the objective. The release point should be marked so that everyone leaving the OBJ can find it. All elements will depart the OBJ to return to the ORP through the RP.
11OPERATIONAL TERMSLimit of Advance (LOA) – a phase line used to control the forward progress of the attack. The assault element will not advance beyond the LOA, but may maintain security from that point.Casualty Collection Point (CCP) – a location on or near the objective to which casualties will be brought for treatment and preparation for evacuationLOA is simply a maneuver control measure intended to keep the assault element in close proximity to the objective.CCP is often co-located with or near the Release Point, when possible. The CCP should be an area large enough to place multiple casualties, conduct triage and first aid. It should be near a potential evac point, i.e., road or trail for ground medevac, helicopter landing zone (HLZ) for air evac. The CCP should be marked once it is determined it will be used.
12CLASSIFICATIONS Category Type Formation Hasty or Deliberate Point or AreaFormationLinear or L-ShapedAmbushes are classified by Category, Type and Formation.
14HASTY AMBUSHSurprise attack conducted when the unit makes visual contact with the enemy and has time to set up an ambush without being detected.Of course the Hasty Ambush is something platoons and squads need to rehearse and incorporate into their unit SOP. Hasty Ambushes are done “on the fly” and virtually NO time for planning is available. The unit sees a target of opportunity and exploits it immediately. The principles still apply and the hasty ambush must be executed with a rehearsed technique to maximize control.
15SQUAD HASTY AMBUSHHere is the sample graphic from FM Talk through this graphic.
16DELIBERATE AMBUSHSurprise attack conducted against a specific target at a predetermined location.In a deliberate ambush, you know when and where you want to conduct the attack. Time is available for detailed planning and rehearsals. As you will see in the technique portion of this class, the Ambush has a lot of moving parts and must be rehearsed thoroughly.
17TYPES OF AMBUSHES POINT AMBUSH Unit deploys to attack the enemy in a single kill zone.AREA AMBUSHUnit deploys in two or more related POINT AMBUSHES.
23AMBUSH FORMATIONS L-SHAPED The Assault Element forms the long leg parallel to the enemy’s direction of movement.The Support Element forms the short leg at one end of and at right angles to the Assault Element.
25PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS Covering the Entire Kill Zone by FireUsing Existing or Reinforcing ObstaclesProtecting Assault and Support Elements (with mines, claymores or explosives)Using Security Elements to Isolate Kill Zone
26PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS Assaulting into Kill ZoneTiming of All Elements to Maintain SurpriseRotation of Squads into a Squad Ambush (for ambushes that must be maintained for a long time)
27AMBUSH TECHNIQUE Leader’s Recon (Phase 1) Purpose is to PINPOINT the objectivePL, Assault Squad Leaders, Weapon’s Squad Leader, Release Point Personnel, Security Detachment, Forward ObserverMove to RPEstablish SurveillanceMove close enough to OBJ (when possible, move to actual positions) to identify the following:Kill Zone (Define L/R Limits and LOA)Support Positions (Key Weapon Locations)Security Positions
28AMBUSH TECHNIQUE Occupation (Phase 2) Move to RP in Order of OccupationEmplace SecurityEmplace Key Weapons (Support)Emplace Assault (Assign Sectors of Fire)Emplace Mines and ObstaclesAiming Stakes, Camouflage PositionsWait, Remain Alert, Observe Strict NLM Discipline
29AMBUSH TECHNIQUE Execution (Phase 3) Initiate ON ORDER with the MOST CASUALTY PRODUCING WEAPONTeam Leaders Control Rate and Distribution of FiresSoldiers Fire to Kill All Enemy in SectorLeaders Maintain Fires Until ALL Movement and Noise Cease / Call CEASE FIRE
30AMBUSH TECHNIQUE Execution (Phase 3) continued Assault Elements Enter Kill Zone in Pre-Determined Order, On OrderAssault Elements Advance to LOA / Announce “LOA”PL Deploys Special Teams
31AMBUSH TECHNIQUE Withdrawal (Phase 4) After Special Teams Complete Assigned TasksWithdraw in Reverse Order of OccupationAssault 1 (by Fire Team)Assault 2 (by Fire Team)SupportSecurityALL PERSONNEL WITHDRAW THRU THE RELEASE POINT
33AREA AMBUSH Conducted with Multiple Point Ambushes Each Point Ambush Follows the Same Principles and Techniques Previously Described
34KEY CONSIDERATIONS Command, Control, and Communication Designation of Main and Supporting Efforts (Weigh Accordingly)TerrainOCOKACentralized ORP and Release PointCentralized Casualty Collection PointCoordination Between AmbushesDisengagement Criteria for Supporting Efforts