3 Sausages have been popular since ancient times. First made to utilize and preserve trimmings and less desirable cuts of meat. The term “charcutier” means one who prepares and sells pork products.
4 Curing and Smoking Ingredients for curing foods: 1. Salt - as a preservative 2. Nitrites and nitrites - used to prevent botulism infection 3. Sugars - modify the flavor 4. Herbs, spices, and other flavors
5 Curing Methods Dry cures - cure ingredients are packed or rubbed over the food to coat completely Brines - a solution of salt and other curing ingredients in water. Food submerged or injected with brine.
6 Smoking Smoking is a way of drying and preserving foods since prehistoric times. First rule of smoking: DO NOT smoke meats, poultry, or seafood that has not been cured.
7 Two Types of Smoking Cold smoking Temperature kept at or below 85° F Food will absorb the flavor but not cook Hot smoking Temperature up to 165° F for sausage and meat Temperature up to 200° F for fish and poultry Food takes on flavors and cooks
8 Typical Smoker Consists of the Following Items An enclosed chamber A source of smoke A means of circulating smoke A way of controlling heat
9 Types of Wood Used Hickory is the most popular. Other woods: oak, mesquite, and fruitwoods; all types. Pine and pressure treated wood should NEVER be used.
10 Sausages A mixture of ground meat, usually pork, and seasonings stuffed in a casing. There are hundreds of types of sausages.
11 Categories of Sausages Three classifications Fresh sausages - according to the USDA is one that contains no nitrates or nitrites. Cured sausages - ones that contain nitrates or nitrites of sodium Smoked sausages - may be cold or hot smoked
12 Basic Sausage Ingredients Lean Pork fat, preferably hard fatback, ground with meat Salt Spices, herbs, and other flavorings
13 The meat: Pork, beef, veal, lamb, chicken, turkey, duck, liver, rabbit, or venison The fat: Makes up to 25% to 50% of the total weight Basic Sausage Ingredients (cont’d)
15 Other Important Ingredients Garlic Onion Shallots Chives Wine Vinegar Eggs Spice mixes: Quatre épices (4 spices)
16 Casings Natural casings are made from the intestines of animals. Can be packed in salt as a preservative. Collagen casings are molded from animal products. Synthetic casings are made from plastic and are not edible.
17 Equipment Other than a meat grinder, nothing is needed. A grinder is used to produce the texture that is desired.
18 The Grind 1. Basic grind 2. Emulsified grind The grind will determine the texture of the sausage.
19 Smoking Sausages 1. Only cured sausages should be smoked. 2. Sausages should be dried briefly before smoking. 3. Hot or cold smoking methods should be used, depending on recipe.
20 Cooking Sausages Popular as stand alone menu items. Most are considered ready to cook. If the sausage has to be cooked, it should be thoroughly cooked.
21 Basic Cooking Methods 1. Simmering 2. Sautéing and pan-frying 3. Braising 4. Broiling and grilling