3 Sausages have been popular since ancient times. First made to utilize and preserve trimmings and less desirable cuts of meat.The term “charcutier” means one who prepares and sells pork products.
4 Curing and Smoking Ingredients for curing foods: Salt - as a preservativeNitrites and nitrites - used to prevent botulism infectionSugars - modify the flavorHerbs, spices, and other flavors
5 Curing MethodsDry cures - cure ingredients are packed or rubbed over the food to coat completelyBrines - a solution of salt and other curing ingredients in water. Food submerged or injected with brine.
6 SmokingSmoking is a way of drying and preserving foods since prehistoric times.First rule of smoking: DO NOT smoke meats, poultry, or seafood that has not been cured.
7 Two Types of Smoking Cold smoking Hot smoking Temperature kept at or below 85° FFood will absorb the flavor but not cookHot smokingTemperature up to 165° F for sausage and meatTemperature up to 200° F for fish and poultryFood takes on flavors and cooks
8 Typical Smoker Consists of the Following Items An enclosed chamberA source of smokeA means of circulating smokeA way of controlling heat
9 Types of Wood Used Hickory is the most popular. Other woods: oak, mesquite, and fruitwoods; all types.Pine and pressure treated wood should NEVER be used.
10 SausagesA mixture of ground meat, usually pork, and seasonings stuffed in a casing.There are hundreds of types of sausages.
11 Categories of Sausages Three classificationsFresh sausages - according to the USDA is one that contains no nitrates or nitrites.Cured sausages - ones that contain nitrates or nitrites of sodiumSmoked sausages - may be cold or hot smoked
12 Basic Sausage Ingredients LeanPork fat, preferably hard fatback, ground with meatSaltSpices, herbs, and other flavorings
13 Basic Sausage Ingredients (cont’d) The meat:Pork, beef, veal, lamb, chicken, turkey, duck, liver, rabbit, or venisonThe fat:Makes up to 25% to 50% of the total weight
14 Seasonings Allspice Caraway seeds Cayenne or hot red pepper Cinnamon ClovesCorianderCuminFennel seedGingerMaceMarjoramMustardNutmegPaprikaParsleyPepperSageTarragonThyme
15 Other Important Ingredients GarlicOnionShallotsChivesWineVinegarEggsSpice mixes:Quatre épices (4 spices)
16 CasingsNatural casings are made from the intestines of animals. Can be packed in salt as a preservative.Collagen casings are molded from animal products.Synthetic casings are made from plastic and are not edible.
17 Equipment Other than a meat grinder, nothing is needed. A grinder is used to produce the texture that is desired.
18 The Grind Basic grind Emulsified grind The grind will determine the texture of the sausage.
19 Smoking Sausages Only cured sausages should be smoked. Sausages should be dried briefly before smoking.Hot or cold smoking methods should be used, depending on recipe.
20 Cooking Sausages Popular as stand alone menu items. Most are considered ready to cook.If the sausage has to be cooked, it should be thoroughly cooked.
21 Basic Cooking Methods Simmering Sautéing and pan-frying Braising Broiling and grilling