Presentation on theme: "Herbs Objective: Gain some familiarity with definition, preservation, and use of various herbs."— Presentation transcript:
Herbs Objective: Gain some familiarity with definition, preservation, and use of various herbs
2 “An herb is the friend of physicians and the praise of cooks.” - Charlemagne
Herb or Spice? Herb Green leaf, flower, or stem of a flowering plant used fresh or dried for flavor, scent, or medicinal properties Grown in moderate climates Generally more subtle in flavor Spice Roots, seeds, fruits, flowers, or bark used for similar purposes; usually earthy in color Grown in the tropical climates Generally more pungent in flavor Some plants can be both: cilantro/coriander, anise
Origins of Herbs & Spices New World Allspice Annatto Chilies Paprika Echinacea Juniper Horseradish Tamarind Vanilla Europe Bay Chives Dill Oregano Parsley Rosemary Sage Tarragon Thyme Caraway Fennel Lavender Marjoram Mint Savory Chamomile Lemon balm Near East Anise seed Borage Cumin Cilantro Fenugreek Poppy Sesame Marigold Pyrethrum Coriander Saffron India Basil Cardamom Peppercorn Turmeric Cinnamon Mace Nutmeg Far East Garlic Juniper Lemongrass Star Anise Cilantro Cloves Ginger Galangal Chives
5 Fascinating flavor fact: “Cilantro” refers to the leaf of the coriander plant while “coriander” refers to a spice made from the seed of the same plant. “Cilantro” and “coriander” are not interchangeable in recipes.
Cooking with Herbs Fine vs. Robust Herbs Robust herbs are added to food while it is being cooked Fine herbs may be eaten uncooked, in salads, or sprinkled over other dishes Some can be used both ways (i.e. parsley) Fresh herbs preferable to dried ones Drying will cause loss of some essential oils and flavors, even under ideal conditions Examples of ethnic herb assortments: Italian: basil, oregano, fennel, flat-leaf parsley, garlic Mexican: cilantro/coriander, basil, chile peppers, tomatillo
7 Approximate EQUIVALENT amounts of different forms of herbs are: 1 tablespoon finely cut fresh herbs = 1 teaspoon crumbled dried herbs = 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon ground dried herbs
Cooking with Herbs Place herbs/spices in oil and allow flavor to infuse into the oil and use for cooking Make marinades and sauces for meat, poultry, or fish Rosemary with lamb Make herb butter, cheese, or stuffing
Cooking with herbs Wide variety of herbal teas Some contain cancer- fighting antioxidants Use as garnish Eat fresh Basil over fresh mozzarella and tomato in bruschetta
10 More delicate fresh herbs can be added a minute or two before the end of cooking or sprinkled on food before serving. Examples include: Basil Chives Cilantro Dill leaves Parsley Marjoram Mint
11 Less delicate fresh herbs can be added about the last 20 minutes of cooking. Examples include: Rosemary Tarragon Thyme
12 Warning: Remove bay leaves at the end of cooking. They can be a choking hazard if left in foods and can cause harmful cuts and scratches in your throat and esophagus.
13 Use the following guidelines for storing your spices and herbs to maintain maximum quality.
14 To prevent flavor and color loss, AVOID: Moisture Light Heat Air
15 Store in tightly covered containers. Store in a dark place away from sunlight, such as inside a cupboard or drawer.
16 AVOID storage above dishwasher, microwave, stove, refrigerator or near a sink or heating vent. If storing in an open spice rack, store away from heat, light and moisture.
In Conclusion Herbs are a very versatile plant product that can be used in a variety of ways. Start with herbs you feel comfortable using, the slowly add more to make your dishes more interesting an complex. Be creative and have fun in the kitchen!