2Chapter 6 ObjectivesUnderstand the role of sausages in culinary historyIdentify necessary ingredients for sausagesExplain the importance of proper equipment selection, care, and use in making sausagesClassify various types of sausageDiscuss fermented sausages and their manufacture
3Chapter 6 ObjectivesDescribe the process of making basic grind sausagesContrast the basic process with the procedure for emulsion sausagesRecognize the value of testingDistinguish suitable garnishes for sausagesClarify the various types of sausage shaping options and preparation methods for each type
4The History of SausageThe word sausage comes from the Latin word “salus” meaning “salted”The earliest sausages were created in ancient Rome and GreeceRoman soldiers traveled with sausages and introduced sausages to other parts of EuropeBy the Middle Ages, regional forms of sausage began to evolve into definite and unique forms all over Europe
5Sausage IngredientsSausages are made by grinding raw meats with salt and spicesThis mixture is then stuffed into natural or synthetic casingsThe first casings were made from intestines, stomachs, and other animal parts
6Main IngredientGenerally, sausage is made from tougher cuts of meat from the leg or the shoulderThe more exercised the muscle, the more highly developed the flavorMeats for sausage should be trimmed and cut into dice or stripsWhen pork liver is called for in a sausage recipe, cut it into cubes before grindingThe seasonings or cure mix are tossed together with the meat before grinding
7Main Ingredient Sausages in this chapter are made from: Pork Veal Lamb BeefVenisonPheasantChickenTurkey
8Certified PorkCertified pork is pork that has been treated in a way that destroys the pathogens responsible for trichinosisPork sausages that undergo lengthy smoking or drying procedures but aren’t cooked must be made with certified pork
9Preparing Certified Pork Minimum TemperatureMinimum Freezing and Holding Time5°F/10ºC20 days-10°F/-23ºC12 days-20°F/-29ºC6 daysPack pork in containers to a depth of 6 inches
10Fat 25 – 30% fat is the preferred average in a sausage Fat used in contemporary forcemeats:Pork jowl fatPork fatbackHeavy cream
11Seasonings and Cure Mixes Salt (ordinary table, kosher, or sea salt)Sausages that will be cold or dry smoke must have nitrate or a nitrite-nitrate combination (like Prague Powder II)Hot-smoked and fresh sausages do not require nitriteSweeteners are added to mellow the sausage’s flavor and make the finished product moister
12SpicesSpices are added as whole toasted seeds, ground, or in special blends like:Quatre épicesPâté spice
13Herbs Sausage formulas often call for dried herbs Fresh herbs may be substituted for dry herbsAs a general rule, you will need about two to three times more fresh herbs compared to dried herbs
14AromaticsMany aromatic ingredients may be added to sausage recipes including:Vegetables (usually cooked, added when cooled)WinesCitrus zestPrepared sauces (Tabasco and Worcestershire)Powdered onions and garlicStockVinegars (too much acid can give finished sausage a grainy texture)
15Equipment Selection, Care and Use Electric meat grindersFood processorsChoppersMixersSausage stuffers
16Equipment Selection, Care and Use Use the following guidelines:1. Make sure equipment is in excellent condition.2. Make sure equipment is scrupulously clean before setting to work.3. Chill any part of the machine that comes into direct contact with the sausage ingredients.4. Choose the right tool for the job.5. Assemble the grinder correctly.
17Progressive GrindingThe meat and/or fat is ground through a succession of increasingly smaller platesProgressive grinding gives a fine, even texture to the forcemeatMakes it easier for the grinder to process the meat down to a fine grindThe meat and/or fat should be near 28° to 30°F so that the meat grinds properly
18Basic Grind Sausage Sausages have a medium to coarse texture When left loose they are referred to as bulk sausagesThese sausages are made with the basic grind method:Fresh sausagesCooked sausagesSmoked and dried sausages that are later air-dried
19Basic Grind Sausage Method: 1. Grind chilled and diced meats, as well as other ingredients as required by recipe, to the desired texture (meats should be 28° to 30°F).2. Mix the ground sausage meat(s) on the first speed for 1 minute, then on the second speed for 15 to 30 seconds, or until it becomes homogenous.3. The sausage mixture is now ready to test, garnish, and shape.
20Dry and Semi-Dry Fermented Sausages Fermented sausages have a tangy flavor because of the lactic acid that is produced during fermentationTypically made of:Beef or porkWater (60 to 70% of the weight of the meat)SaltCuring agents such as nitrate and nitriteSugars such as dextrose and sucrose
21Dry and Semi-Dry Fermented Sausages It is vital to inhibit or eliminate the growth of bacteria that can cause spoilageWhen grinding, it is essential to keep the meat cold: 28° – 30°F and the fat 5° – 10°FAfter grinding, the only step left is to stuff and smoke the sausage if desiredWhile they age, keep the sausages in an environment that is climate controlled; it is crucial to maintain a proper humidity level
22Dry and Semi-Dry Fermented Sausages The fermentation during the drying process produces lactic and acetic acid, which lower the pH level to between 4.6 and 5.2 for semi-dry sausages and to a pH level between 5.0 and 5.3 for dry sausagesSemi-dry sausages may lose 15% of their original weight as they ageDry sausage could lose up to 30%The finished product should be brightly colored, have a slight yeast flavor, and a smooth, slightly chewy texture
23Emulsion SausagesMade from a basic mixture referred to as forcemeat, which reflects the ratio of ingredients:5 parts trimmed raw meat to4 parts fat (pork jowl fat) to3 parts water (in the form of ice) by weight
24Emulsion Sausages Method: 1. Cure the meat and then grind through the fine die.2. Grind the chilled fatback through the fine grinder die.3. Chop together the ground meat and crushed ice and process until the temperature drops to below 30°F/-1°C.4. Add the ground fat to the meat when the temperature reaches 40°F.5. Add the nonfat dry milk (and any remaining seasonings) when the temperature reaches between 45°F/7ºC and 50°F/10ºC. Continue to process the forcemeat until it reaches 58°F/14°C.
25Emulsion Sausages Testing the emulsion forcemeat: Wrap a 1-ounce portion of the forcemeat in plastic wrap and poach it to the appropriate internal temperature (145°F/63°C for fish, 150°F/66°C for pork, beef, veal, lamb, and game, and 165°F/74°C for any item including poultry and poultry liver). Taste and check for flavor, seasoning, and consistency.
26Sausage Shaping Loose or bulk: solid log in plastic wrap Made into pattiesSausages in casings: natural or syntheticSee casing charts on page 247 of book for natural casing sizes, lengths, and capacities
27Preparing Natural Casings Method:1. Rewind the casings and store covered in salt. Lay out the casings and remove any knots. Form into bundles of the required length.2. Before using the casings, rinse them thoroughly in tepid water, forcing the water through the casing to flush out the salt.3. Cut the casing into lengths if necessary (consult specific recipes) and tie a bubble knot in one end of the casing.
28Stuffing the Casing Method using a sausage stuffing machine: 1. Assemble and fill the sausage stuffer properly. Be sure that all parts of the sausage stuffer that will come in contact with the forcemeat are clean and chilled. Fill the stuffer with the sausage meat, tamping it down well to remove any air pockets.2. Press the sausage into the prepared casing. Gather the open end of the casing over the nozzle of the sausage stuffer. Press the sausage into the casing.3. Twist or tie the sausage into the appropriate shape.